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summarised the entire report AssignmentTutorOnline

School of Applied Business, MGT736 Advanced Applied Management, Semester 2, 2014
Assessment 5: Research Report Marking Schedule (weighting 55%)
Student Name: Hannah McIntosh
Project Title:
Experiencing and Overcoming Barriers to Leadership: New Zealand Women
and the Proverbial Glass Ceiling

Section Marking Criteria Mark
Mark
x/5
Title
Abstract
Introduction
Title was well‐chosen and reflected research report contents
Superb: summarised the entire report, and ticked the boxes of a
maximum of 350 words in four key sections: outline the problem; the
research design; the results; and the learning. Well done.
Too many key words. Needed to highlight the top five or six only
Defined background, topic & context, but got stuck in conclusions. Be
careful to put yourself back at the beginning of your project when you
prepare this. Because of that, you missed explaining the importance &
defining the problem, along with limitations and assumptions
from
the outset
as opposed to after your literature review was started.
Didn’t preview the chapters in the document.
3.90
Literature Review
x/12
Superb: you explored very relevant and valid information and
highlighted useful lines of inquiry to follow
Fascinating comment by Sanderson‐Gammon about the derogatory
effect of sexual humour. Never mind “
The mills of the Gods grind
slowly, but they grind exceeding fine
1; how about a culture of male
dominance…
A few minor things to pick up on:
o Needed more proofing.
o Go for a shorter sentence structure. It helps keep your object
clear for the reader (eg 1.1).
o Perhaps an explanation of what “Symptoms of Barriers”
meant before you started detailing them?
Sources referenced correctly, but I note that Rosener (p. 12) has the
title popping up. This usually happens because you have two
publications by the same author in your bibliography in the same
year. Just differentiate the year with a letter (ie, 1990a, 1990b), and
this problem does not recur (same for Barsh & Yee, p. 14). Also
“Gov.uk” not “Gov.UK”.
This was long, but I didn’t note any irrelevancies.
12.00
Methodology
x/3
Appropriate methodology utilised with interpretative constructivism
Very clear outline of research methods used – detailed enough for
replication.
3.00
Mark
x/22
Findings
Discussion
(Analysis &
interpretation)
Excellent ‐ major issues outlined but not evaluated
Shown most relevant information in graphs, figures & tables
Negative results mentioned in the next section.
Clearly applied Literature Review to Findings, but too long‐winded.
This is where you could have been more brief by only picking up on
the key data (ie n>50%), and not being exhaustive.
I also wonder if you missed a minor trick here by not lit reviewing NZ
cultural markers and including our very strong Kiwi sports culture: I
recall this is much stronger than in most other nations, despite our
Hofstede masculinity score being 45%.
19.00
AssignmentTutorOnline

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Empiricus, 3d Century Greek philosopher, translation of an anonymous verse in Sextus Empiricus Adversus Mathematicos bk. I, sect. 287.
School of Applied Business, MGT736 Advanced Applied Management, Semester 2, 2014

Section Marking Criteria Mark
In own language ie, few quotes
Developed themes/main issues
Personal analysis/observations included.
Conclusions
x/8
Appropriate, flowed from discussion, but again, but too long‐winded.
You could have really cut to the chase here. You don’t keep arguing
your point: you simply restate the key issues.
Grounded in the present
Detailed key limitations discovered through the process
Future Research sub‐section is action oriented & future‐focused
6.00
Presentation
x/5
“1970s” is common use now, not “1970’s” (ie, plural, not a possessive
apostrophe or a contraction). “142,884 employers” not “142,884
Employers” (p. 7). Commas are in some odd places at times (no
comma before a bracket, only afterward) or are missing entirely
(“Fagenson, 1990, p. 268” not “Fagenson, 1990 p. 268”): a bit more
proofing, perhaps? Also, if you have long sentences, your commas
allow your reader to take a mental breath. “So there are fewer…” not
“So there is less…” (p. 7). A few plural or singular glitches, eg “…in
these organisations and…”” not “…in these organisation and…”;
“…male executives are …” not “…male executive are …” (p. 11); “…a
New Zealand woman…” not “…a New Zealand women…” (p. 12); “a
woman’s” not “a women’s” (p. 13). First sentence in 1.2 has no object.
Sense: “…with is not being themselves”? Didn’t close the single quote
mark on ‘Double Burden’ (p. 19). “PhD Scholarship” not “PHD
Scholarship” (p. 31). “Low Confidence’s impact” not “Low Confidences
impact”; this one is a possessive apostrophe (p. 44). “down fall” is one
word (p. 44)
When you indent your headings, also indent your body text, so that it
is easier for the reader to follow (our eyes, when reading, travel the
page from top left to bottom right in the West).
Instead of using a gap to create a ‘break’ in the text, perhaps use a
sub‐heading. It would again make it easier for the reader to key into
the micro‐changes of tone.
Excellent reference list. Generally good bibliographical technique, but
some countries of publication missing.
Good Appendices
4.50
TOTAL MARKS (88%) 48.40

EXPERIENCING AND OVERCOMING BARRIERS TO
LEADERSHIP:
NEW ZEALAND WOMEN AND THE PROVERBIAL
GLASS CEILING
RESEARCH REPORT
Advanced Applied Management MGT736
16 NOVEMBER 2014
HANNAH MCINTOSH ID 12869790
Nelson Marlborough Institute of Technology
Hannah‐Mcintosh@live.nmit.ac.nz
Prepared for Sam Young

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Hannah McIntosh ID 12869790 MGT736
Abstract
This research identifies known and recognised barriers faced by women when seeking New Zealand senior
leadership positions.
Using an exploratory literature review, academically recognised barriers were compared to barriers New Zealand
women had personally experienced and their strategies used to overcome them. Confidential personal interviews
were conducted with eleven women in senior leadership roles across New Zealand and the following key issues were
identified.
The research found seven barriers which challenge women’s career progression. Two are internal: Low Confidence
and Imposter Syndrome. These were both found to have significant impact on career progression but are also under
the womens’ control and are able to be managed, therefore allowing outcomes to change. Five external barriers
were found, including Gender Bias, which are beliefs held by society about the traditional roles of men and women.
This silent pervasive barrier cannot be changed as it is engrained in society and influences both consciously and
unconciously all other barriers. It requires acknowledgement of its impact on business decision making. The Double
Burden Syndrome highlights the pressure of fulfilling both home and employment responsibilities with a lack of
flexible childcare. It is the most significant barrier that can be changed by actions of women and society. Other
external barriers included Career Breaks, which is an extended period away from the work force, Lack of Female Role
Models in visible senior roles, and the Old Boys’ Network which is male networks exclusively promoting males. All
were found to have moderate impact on career progression. Using the Evolution of Organisation Diversity
Awareness and Action Model, a five stage scale of acceptance and action around diversity both women and
organisations stand at only stage two, however ‘gender blind’ behaviour congruent with stage five is regularly
displaced by organisations, which may be encouraging some of the above barriers.
Key strategies the participants used to over these barriers included investing in child care, choosing a supportive
partner, developing networks and understanding personal influence, maintaining a positive outlook on personal
abilities, choosing an enabling employer, outsourcing unmanageable tasks, and finding a mentor with a focus on
career progression.
KEY WORDS: Female Leadership, Career Progression, Progression Barriers, Low Confidence, Imposter Syndrome,
Double Burden Syndrome, Gender Bias, Career Breaks, Lack of Role Models, Old Boys’ Network, Career Strategies

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Hannah McIntosh ID 12869790 MGT736
Acknowledgements
The researcher would like to thank all the participants who generously gave them time to participant in the research.
Thanks also goes to my Researcher Supervisor, Sam Young who steered me in the right direction every time I lost my
way. Thank you to Dave Bonham‐Carter and Sandrine Marrassé for your patience and assistance in the final stages.
Table of Contents
Abstract……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1
Acknowledgements………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..2
1. Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..6
1. Literature Review……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………7
1.1. Female participation in the workforce ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 7
1.2. Female governance participation ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 7
1.3. Economic reasoning for female leadership ………………………………………………………………………………………… 8
1.1. Management Theory………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………10
1.2. Internal Barriers facing female leadership………………………………………………………………………………………… 11
1.2.1. Lack of Self Confidence ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 12
1.2.2. Imposter Syndrome ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………13
1.3. External Barriers facing female leadership ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 14
1.3.1. Gender Bias ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….14
1.3.1.1. Sexism ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….15
1.3.2. Double Burden Syndrome…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 16
1.3.3. Lack of female role models …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 17
1.3.4. Career Breaks …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….18
1.3.4.1. Flexible work hours …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 18
1.3.5. Old Boys’ Network ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..19
1.4. Symptoms of Barriers……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..20
1.4.1. Leaky Pipeline Theory …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………20
1.4.2. Women’s Pay Disparity ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 20
1.4.3. Gender Segregation in Industries ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 21
2. Research Methodology ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….22
2.1. Secondary Research……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….22
2.2. Primary Research …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..23
2.3. Key Assumptions and limitations…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 25
3. Findings ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….27

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Hannah McIntosh ID 12869790 MGT736
3.1. Participant Demographics………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 27
3.2. Internal Barriers …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….29
3.2.1. Low Confidence………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………29
3.2.1.1. Participant Suggested Strategies ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 30
3.2.2. Imposter Syndrome…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………31
3.2.2.1. Participant Suggested Strategies ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 32
3.3. External Barriers…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….32
3.3.1. Gender Bias ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………32
3.3.1.1. Participant Suggested Strategies ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 33
3.3.2. Double Burden Syndrome……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 34
3.3.2.1. Participant Suggested Strategies ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 35
3.3.3. Career Breaks …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………36
3.3.3.1. Participant Suggested Strategies ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 37
3.3.4. Lack of Role Models ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..38
3.3.4.1. Participant Suggested Strategies ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 39
3.3.5. Old Boys’ Network ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….40
3.3.5.1. Participant Suggested Strategies ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 41
3.4. Significant Points……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………42
3.4.1. Personal Comments ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..42
3.4.2. Equality Comments …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………42
3.4.3. Networking Comments …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 42
4. Discussion…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….43
4.1. Participants …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..43
4.2. Internal Barriers …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….44
4.2.1. Low Confidence………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………44
4.2.2. Imposter Syndrome…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………45
4.3. External Barriers…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………45
4.3.1. Gender Bias ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………45
4.3.2. Double Burden Syndrome……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 47
4.3.3. Career Breaks …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………48
4.3.4. Lack of Role Models ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..50
4.3.5. Old Boys’ Network ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….51

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Hannah McIntosh ID 12869790 MGT736
5. Conclusions ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….53
5.1. Key Findings ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….53
5.1.1. Double Burden Syndrome……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 53
5.1.2. Gender Bias ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………53
5.1.3. Low Confidence and Imposter Syndrome………………………………………………………………………………….. 54
5.1.4. Career Breaks …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………54
5.1.5. Lack of Role Models ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..54
5.1.6. Old Boys’ Network ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….54
5.2. Strategies ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..55
5.3. Practical Implications ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..56
5.3.1. Women’s evolution level of awareness and action …………………………………………………………………….. 56
5.3.2. Organisational evolution level of awareness and action……………………………………………………………… 57
1.1. Limitations…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….57
1.2. Future Research …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….58
2. Bibliography …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………59
3. Appendices…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..62
3.1. Appendix One: Participant Information Sheet…………………………………………………………………………………… 62
3.2. Appendix Two: Consent Form…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 64
3.3. Appendix Three: Interview Questions ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 66
3.4. Appendix Four: Ethical Considerations …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 68
3.5. Appendix Five: Nine Organisational Dimensions ……………………………………………………………………………….. 69
3.6. Appendix Six: Leaky Pipeline Statistical Graphic………………………………………………………………………………… 69
……75

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Hannah McIntosh ID 12869790 MGT736
List of Tables
Table 1 Modern Apprenticeship Statistics as at December 2011 __________________________________________ 70
Table 2 Women’s Representation in Legal Partnerships ________________________________________________ 71
Table 3 Women in Governance in Disabled People’s Organisations _______________________________________ 73
Table 4 Chief Executives Genders as at September 2012 ________________________________________________ 74
Table 5 Female FTSE Index 2012 ‐ 2014 _____________________________________________________________ 75
List of Figures
Figure 1 Evolution of Organisational Diversity Awareness and Action………………………………………………………………… 10
Figure 2 Employment Position of Participants …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 27
Figure 3 Participant Involvement in Industries ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 27
Figure 4 Age Range of Participants…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………28
Figure 5 Time spent in one Leadership Position……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 28
Figure 6 Low Confidence Awareness………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 29
Figure 7 Imposter Syndrome Awareness…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 31
Figure 8 Perception of Home and Work personalities ………………………………………………………………………………………. 32
Figure 9 Double Burden Syndrome Awareness ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 34
Figure 10 Participants’ Career Breaks …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 36
Figure 11 Time spent on a Career Break …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 36
Figure 12 Participants’ access to favourable returning conditions……………………………………………………………………… 37
Figure 13 Mentor and Role Model Use …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 38
Figure 14 Nature of Mentoring Relationship …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 38
Figure 15 Gender of Participants’ Mentors……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 39
Figure 16 Belief in the Old Boys’ Network……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 40
Figure 17 Socialising done with Men to enhance Career Progression …………………………………………………………………. 41

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Hannah McIntosh ID 12869790 MGT736
1. Introduction
It is a well known fact that women are not achieving senior leadership positions at the same rate as men, despite
higher numbers of women present in the workforce and their possession of generally higher education. Research
since the 1970’s has identified seven specific barriers that women must overcome to reach leadership, and these are
either internal to the women or external to society and organisations. This research seeks to identify the experiences
New Zealand women in senior leadership roles have had with these barriers, and what strategies they used to
overcome them.
Internal barriers identified include Low Confidence or the lack of ability to display confidence in a business
environment, and Imposter Syndrome which is an inability to internalise success that results in the feelings of being
a fraud, or ‘imposter’ in the organisation. These both have significant impact on career progression, but also can be
managed as they are under the direct influence of the women.
External barriers include Double Burden Syndrome which is the pressure of balancing the majority of home tasks and
career responsibilities. This is a significant barrier as it identifies that a lack of flexible childcare restricts women’s
access to employment.
Gender Bias is the assumption held by society that limits women’s access to promotion and opportunities, often
playing out in an unconscious way, this is a silent and pervasive barrier formed by the New Zealand culture. It is
significant as it cannot be changed, rather acknowledged and understood for the influence it has on business
decisions.
A lack of female roles in visible senior roles implies that these positions are undesirable or unattainable for women,
this makes it difficult for women to visualise themselves in the role, and deters them from attempting to reach it.
Career Breaks are when women leave the work force for an extended period of time for child or elder care, travel, or
further education. The issue is when returning to work there is a lack of flexible working arrangements, or childcare.
Finally the Old Boys’ Network is the concept of men developing relationships of trust as they journey through their
career, which leads them to promoting each other exclusively removing opportunities from women, and this is often
fuelled by informal socialising. The key to this barrier is networking and women’s attitudes and abilities around it.
These seven barriers were identified using databases, scholarly articles, and government, non government, and
intergovernmental reports to build a comprehensive picture of the accepted barriers faced by women in western
countries, with a particular focus on New Zealand. Women in senior roles across New Zealand were then interviewed
to gain insight of their personal experiences with the barriers, and what strategies they used to overcome them.
These two data sources were then compared and analysed to reveal key issues and strategies.
This research is of interest to me as I am a young woman just beginning her journey to leadership, and I wished to
have better understanding of what barriers I must overcome, and how to best face them. Perhaps awareness may be
half the issue; if barriers can be spotlighted then they can be better navigated.
This report will firstly identify all seven barriers through the secondary research with inclusion of symptoms of these
barriers in society. Then primary research findings will detail the data shared from the New Zealand female leaders
who took part in this project. Finally the discussion section will discuss the two data sources and then conclusions
will be drawn on the barriers impact on women, and key strategies to overcome them.
The researcher has chosen to use the Evolution of Organisational Diversity Awareness and Action model (EODAA) to
measure progression of both the women and organisations. However it is acknowledge that the focus of the
research is on female individual behaviour which limits organisational data gathering, as the time frame to conduct
the research limited its scope.

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Hannah McIntosh ID 12869790 MGT736
1. Literature Review
1.1. Female participation in the workforce
Women in leadership is an ongoing issue for management in the twenty first century, men and women graduates are
recruited in equal numbers by firms, but the proportion of women in leadership positions is very low, (Grant
Thornton, 2012, p. 4), and this means women are not contributing to influential decisions of future strategic actions
(Patel, 2013, p. 7). According to the Statistics New Zealand’s employment status data out of 142,884 Employers only
44,673 are women, which is reflected by Borkin (2011, p. 6) research finding that women are”50 percent less likely
to be self employed or an employer” (Borkin, 2011, p. 6), or even make it to a manager’s position.
Of 1,511,250 paid employees over half are female according to Statistics New Zealand, (2006, table 1). This means
that although women are not reaching leadership positions their strong presence in the workforce exists. Further
more of these paid employee females hold on average higher qualifications than their male counterparts, Statistics
New Zealand (2006, table 4). This is supported by Borkin (2011) who states “that females, especially younger females
tend to be more highly educated than their male counterparts” (Borkin, 2011, p. 6), and over 50 percent of
graduates are women in some western countries (Patel, 2013, p. 7). By 2025 it is forecast that female graduates will
reach 70 percent in the OCED (Guuria, 2012), so women are naturally high achievers, so why are they not reaching
high positions? What is wrong with women, or what is wrong with organisations? These questions reveal very
different answers, (Wittenberg‐Cox, 2014, p. 6).
1.2. Female governance participation
Gender diversity is the term used to address the presence of women in leadership, however as described by
Wittenberg‐Cox (2014, p. 4) there is only two genders meaning an organisation is either balanced or imbalanced,
currently the large majority of organisations are imbalanced.
Twenty percent of the leadership roles around the globe are held by women, though they account for approximately
half the world’s population, (Grant Thornton, 2012, p. 2; Patel, 2013, p. 8). The Cranfield University School of
Management monitors female participation in governance from the research of FTSE Top 100 companies, they have
found that female governance is trending upwards every year (see table 5), but there is still no gender balance on
any of the companies’ boards.
The global average for women’s participation in parliament is only 20 percent, (Human Rights Commission,2012, p.
90; Patel, 2013, p. 8). This means that despite being half the world’s population, women only have one fifth of the
input on how we best live our lives (Sandberg & Scovell, 2013).
The Institute of Directors in New Zealand women’s membership level is “nearly one quarter” (Institute of Directors in
New Zealand, 2013, p. 7), of a total membership base of 6,265 people. So there is less than 1,567 female Directors
active in New Zealand governance. Fitzpatrick (2011, p. 8) comments that only 13 of 53 Public Service Chief
Executive appointments made by the State Service commision from 2000 to 2010 were women, this shows that
despite New Zealand’s history for equality for women, as a country we are not up holding our heritage.
According to the Human Rights Commission (2012) following are statistics of leadership and directorship positions
held my women in New Zealand:
NZX top 100 listed companies 14.75 percent are Directors
Accountancy 15.26 percent are Partners
Diplomatic Represetative 43.2 percent are women, with 17 percent of the total top positions held by women
District Health Boards 44 percent of Director positions are held by Women, the 25 percent of those holding
Chair postion, 40 percent holding Deputy Chair

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Hannah McIntosh ID 12869790 MGT736
Finance has 22.92 percent of board postions held by women in New Zealand’s major trading banks, two of
these six banks have Women as the Chief Exceutive Officer (ASB and Westpac)
Judiciary postions consist of 26.68 percent women Judges, with Family Court at 41.18 percent followed by
Maori Land Court (30 percent), the District Court (29.25 percent) and the Environment Court (28.57 percent)
Legal partner positions in total were 19 percent held by women, with a variation between 45.45 percent to 0
percent in New Zealna firms, (see table two)
Not for Profit sector has a significant presence of women’s participation and leadership with 42 percent
representation on Disabled People’s Organisations (DPOs), three of these organisations have a gender
balanced governance, and two more having over 40 percent female board members, (see table three)
New Zealand Police force has 29.4 percent female employees, with one women out of 52 most senior sworn
officers
Politics has 32 percent of Members of Parliament (MPs) are females, 39 percent of list seats and 27 percent
of electoral seats, 19.5 percent being the global average
Public Service sector sees 59 percent of women’s participation with 24.1 percent of Chief Executive positions
held by women, (see table four)
Science has been measured by the membership to Royal Society of New Zealand, with 33 female members
out of 371
Teaching is female‐dominated with 33,692 women teachers of which 1,169 are principals (3 percent), in
comparison to 13,600 male teachers, of which 1,236 are principals (9 percent). In universities senior female
academic staff is 24.48 percent
As the information above shows there are industries in which women have very little presence and other where
they are the majority. This is a result of Occupational segregation AKA Gender Segregation, which is the
expectations held by society of which professions are accepted as appropriate for the genders; this is a Gender
Bias and barrier for women (Jakobsh, 2004, pp. 1‐2). This is discussion further in section 1.4.3 (Gender
Segregation in Industries) below.
1.3. Economic reasoning for female leadership
Both men and women have been found to be equally effective in achieving objectives in leadership (Ministry of
Women’s Affairs, 2013, p. 4). This shows that female leaders are as equally effective as males once in a senior
position, having female leaders then is logical as it is less about social justice and more about business performance.
It is fair to assume better decision making will occur when there is equal participation as there is a range of
backgrounds and experiences (Gov.UK, 2011, p. 8), and this creates stronger business results, (Barsh & Yee, 2012, p.
1; Wittenberg‐Cox, 2014, p.2). Since women represent roughly half of the world’s population having input will create
more robust strategies and could be considered a business imperative, (Barsh & Yee, 2012, p.2), especially in a
collaborative and connected environment that requires a relational team orientated style that comes natural to
women, (Kaiser & Wallace, 2014, p. 17). An organisation that recognises this is the Male Champions of Change (MCC),
who are male executive who have dedicated themselves to ensure equity within their organisations.
“Women represent a substantial talent pipeline for organisations globally, and specifically in New Zealand because of
their high educational attainment” (Professionelle Foundation, 2012, p. 4). Addressing this as an issue of overall
business performance brings forward the point that the number of women consumers globally is larger than India
and China combined, and they control the majority of consumer spending decisions, (Patel, 2013, p.6; Desvaux,
Deillard‐Hoellinger, & Baumgarten, 2007, p. 10). The influence of female participation in governance is potentially
very profitable for the organisations themselves, as it can build better strategies, while focusing on better
communication and non financial performance indicators including “employee and customer satisfaction, diversity

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Hannah McIntosh ID 12869790 MGT736
and corporate social responsibility” (Gov.UK, 2011, p. 10). These indicators could be considered more feminine
under the social expectations of society through women’s’ tendency to focus on relationships.
Female leaders provide stronger competitive advantages by creating offerings that will better meet the needs of
their customers’ and long term business objectives (Patel, 2013, p. 6; Borkin, 2011, p. 16). This is a strong argument
for higher female presence in leadership, to assume a male‐dominated leadership is effective at understanding
women is ignoring half to the potential customer base in some industries.
A Catalyst study cited by Patel (2013, p. 7) found that within Fortune 500 Companies female representation had a
significant effect on performance, there was an increase in return on equity of 53 percent, profit margin of 43
percent, and return on investment of 66 percent. The research conducted by Desvaux, et al. (2007, p.12‐14) of
115,000 employees from 231 public, private, and not for profit companies examined the correlation between
performance excellence (financial and non‐finance metrics) and the nine organisational dimensions (See Appendix
Five), a positive correlation was found for companies who had a higher proportion of female leaders compared to
those with only male leadership.
Supporting this the Reibey Institute study cited by Borkin (2011, p. 16) found that the presence of female directors in
ASX500 companies had a higher average return on equity than companies without women leadership. This data is
available because of an ASX guideline introduced in 2010, stating that annual reports must include information of
the number of women employed, in senior management and on the board of listed organisations. Professionelle
Foundation was driving force behind rule 10.5.5 coming into effect in the NZX, forcing listed companies to follow the
example lead by the ASX. This data has help prove the significance of women in leadership as it was suggested by
Patel (2013) that a minimum of three women sitting on a board yielded the best performance.
On a larger scale a Commonwealth countries including India, South Africa and the United Kingdom would see an
increase in gross domestic product (GDP) between 5 and 27 percent if women’s participation equalled men in the
work force, (Patel, 2013, p. 7). If this equal representation occurred in New Zealand it would boost the GDP by 10
percent, this means that New Zealand still has a quarter of its hidden value in the labour force locked away, (Borkin,
2011, p. 1).
Considering the old age dependency ratio discussed by Borkin (2011, p. 16) to be defined as the number employed in
the economy to those aged over 65 years, the question of pension sustainability is addressed. Currently the ratio is
1:4, so one 65 year old to four employed New Zealanders. However, based on the Statistics New Zealand projections
this ratio will decrease to 1:2 by 2061. The increase of female participation and leadership will not solve “the fiscal
burden of an aging population, but it is one factor that could help lessen its impact” (Borkin, 2011, p. 16).

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Hannah McIntosh ID 12869790 MGT736
1.1. Management Theory
The management theory applied to this research is a model created by Judy B Rosener in the article America’s
Competitive Secret: Utilizing Women as a management Strategy 1995
, The Evolution of Organisational Diversity
Awareness and Action Model (EODAA) (see fig 1).
Figure 1 Evolution of Organisational Diversity Awareness and Action
(Daft, 2005, p. 452)
In the EODAA model (see fig 1) the five stages are a continuum from meeting legal requirements in regards to sexual
harassment (stage one) to valuing diversity as an inherent strength of the organisation (stage five). Although this
model has been written in context of organisations, the researcher will apply it on the organisational and individual
level for this report to provide a more in‐depth analysis of the current female career progression issues. Where
appropriate the researcher will identify which stage an organisation or individual appears to be based on the
evidence. It is acknowledge that data about individual behaviour at each stage is not specifically stated by Rosener,
however from her included literature she does appear to imply it, and that it what the researcher will follow.
In stage one AKA “Staying out of Trouble” (Rosener, 1995, p. 80) there is little awareness rather women are viewed
as a problem to be managed, generally there is only a few or no women in executive positions (Daft, 2005, p. 452;
Rosener, 1995, p. 80). The organisations adheres to internal and external pressure to abide by legislation to avoid
legal action as the culture mentality is ‘fix it’ (Rosener, 1995, p. 80). On an individual level women are unaware of
their rights to fair treatment, they view speaking up as causing trouble.
Stage two AKA “We need to react” (Rosener, 1995, p. 80) awareness of the challenges faced by women grow, as an
understanding develops that the barriers women face are different and greater than a white males (Daft, 2005,
p.452), this specifically includes the Double Burden Syndrome, (Rosener, 1995, p. 80). Stage two managers notice
high rates of female absenteeism and employee turnover is damaging to the organisation but little or no action
comes from this growing awareness except adherence to legislation, (Daft, 2005, p. 80; Rosener, 1995, p. 80).
Gender barriers are not a priority, but minimal training for women is provided, and there is an assumption that
qualified capable women will advance at their own rate, (Rosener, 1995, p. 81). Women in these organisations feel

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Hannah McIntosh ID 12869790 MGT736
they must behave like men to succeed and they feel their career opportunities are restricted, (Rosener, 1995, p. 81).
On an individual level women are aware of the inequity in treatment they receive, and are actively migrating to
employment that supports them.
Stage three AKA “It’s a case of survival” (Rosener, 1995, p. 81) awareness in leaders developed into proactive
changes, as these issues affect the health of the organisation (Daft, 2005, p.452 ; Rosener, 1995, p. 81). There is
recognition that women provide insights that can better improve their offerings and, attract and retain high calibre
female talent (Daft, 2005 pp. 452‐453). Women are reaching executive positions in these organisation and diversity
training of some degree is provided to all employees, however the motivation remains on competitive advantage
(Daft, 2005, p. 453). Much training is focused on changing the behaviour of women so it is more adequate for the
work environment rather than developing the organisational culture (Rosener, 1995, p. 81).Often the women in
executive positions display masculine behaviour traits, and male executive are only just starting to recognise the
difference in viewpoints and leadership styles that women use (Rosener, 1995, p. 81). Mentoring and coaching
programmes are developing and an understanding that women are seeking a career not just a job, however these
initiatives and views have yet to disperse throughout the organisation (Rosener, 1995, p. 81). Motivation for change
still remains driven from competitive advantage rather than moral and social justice (Rosener, 1995, p. 81). On an
individual level women feel more empowered to gain leadership positions if they fit into the criteria of what
leadership be, but there is a strong focus on performance from both the organisation and women to meet
benchmarks.
Stage four AKA “It’s the right thing to do” (Rosener, 1995, p. 81) Executive level is committed to change for equality
with allocation of resources for diversity training, and changing the organisational culture to enable women (Daft,
2005, p. 453; Rosener, 1995, p. 81). A genuine attempt at developing policies for inclusion is made with flexible
working arrangements and improvements to the work environment, with evidence of adherence of these is required
from all levels, with hiring and promoting female talent (Daft, 2005, p. 453; Rosener, 1995, p. 81). There is
potentially a “Cultural Diversity Director or Newsletter highlighting the concerns of women” (Rosener, 1995, p. 83),
and at least a few female directors driving change for other women (Rosener, 1995, p. 83). The motivation shifts in
this stage to focus on competitive advantage and social justice as “it is the right thing to do for both moral and
economic reasons” (Rosener, 1995, p. 83). On an individual level women feel acceptance from the organisation from
the change in focus towards social justice and diversity policies. However policies maybe poorly designed
undermining the exercise of encouraging female participation.
Stage five AKA “The ideal Company” (Rosener, 1995, p. 83; Daft, 2005, p. 453) this organisation is colour and gender
blind, all stereotypes and bias are eliminated, and employees are judged in their competence. On an individual level
females do not disadvantaged, and diversity is a foundation stone of the organisation (Daft, 2005, p. 453; Rosener,
1995, p. 83). Objectives and strategies reflect the needs of both men and women, and the need for accountability on
gender issues is gone (Rosener, 1995, p. 83). Both (Rosener, 1995) and (Daft, 2005) state this seems like an
unreachable target, with “generations of stereotypes and prejudices against women” (Rosener, 1995, p. 83),
however some organisations have made strides towards achieving this including Marriott International and
McDonald’s winning
Fortune magazine’s list of “50 Best Companies for Minorities” (Daft, 2005, p. 453). If motivation
for utilizing women is sourced from economic advantage, it is only a matter of time before stage five becomes an
imperative of organisations (Rosener, 1995, p. 83).
1.2. Internal Barriers facing female leadership
Identified by (Devillard, Sancier, Werner, Maller, & Kossoff, 2013, p. 12) as an individual factors that affect
promotion these include attitudes and mindsets held by women. This influence has found to have only half the
impact on a women’s confidence (disussed below), as collective/external barriers (discussed in section 2.5). Rarely
discussed and mostly underplayed these barriers are critical to undermining a woman’s career (Sandberg & Scovell,
2013, p.17).

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Hannah McIntosh ID 12869790 MGT736
1.2.1. Lack of Self Confidence
Self‐confidence is “a feeling of trust in one’s abilities, qualities, and judgement” (Oxford University Press, 2014), it
has “been identified as a barrier for women both the beliefs in their own abilities, as well as in the capability of
communicating confidence” (Patel, 2013, p. 9). Barsh & Yee (2011, p.6); (2012, p.7) describes this barrier as an
embedded individual mindset obstacle that women place on themselves when pursuing and gaining leadership
positions.
In a study to measure the relationship between gender, locus of control and the level of impact chance has a career
it was found that women believed that external events had a great impact on their career compared (Mahoney 2002,
p. 58). So women feel they had less control over their career than men, while battling a lack of self confidence and
ability to display confidence in a way that is recognised by men. Perhaps this is connected to women being poor at
self promotion about their contribution and ambitions, (Desvaux, et al 2007. p. 8).
This is reflected in their risk aversion in conducting business, (Patel, 2013, p. 15) identifies that men take larger
financial risks in business than women, and this is partly due to a lack of female confidence. This avoidance is
suggested to be because women perceive risk in a different manner, (Patel, 2013, p. 15), where women see potential
loss men see potential success, (Fagenson, 1990 p. 268).
Again lack of self confidence is displayed through authority and negotiations where women struggle to claim
authority around men, (Patel, 2013, p. 19). This is the nature of the male‐dominated senior leadership environment,
where men set the norms, policies and processes favourable to men (Wittenberg‐Cox, 2014, p. 5). This creates an
environment where women struggle to assert themselves over men in leadership as naturally men are large,
stronger, and more dominating by natures design, and the culture of the organisation favours them. “As long as men
continue to dominate positions of power, expectations of women to show unwavering signs of confidence and
strength will continue” (Sanderson‐Gammon, 2013, p. 23), this is because of the accepted paradigm of leadership is
associated with masculine traits.
For women “becoming a leader involves much more than being put in a leadership role, acquiring new skills, and
adapting one’s style to the requirements of that role, it involves a fundamental identity shift” (Ibarra, Ely, & Kolb,
2013, p. 2). This shift needs to hold a belief in their own success and a feeling of entitlement to be treated as an
equal and themselves around men. This identity shift could only occur in an organisation at stage four or above, as
all below stages either do not allow access to these positions (stages one and two), or a women must use masculine
traits to hold leadership (stage three), with is not being themselves.
Natural leadership behaviours and beliefs were also suggested to be a cause of the chosen career path and
socialisation of the women (Rosener, Way Women Lead, 1990 p. 124), which Gender Bias has influence over (see
Gender Bias 2.5.1 below). This means that how a women is raised by her family and society vastly effects her future
choices and personality. So women have been condition from an early age to put the highest importance on family
well‐being (Fagenson, 1990 p. 268).
Women do not perform as confidently as men in interviews, they tend to undervalue their own skills, experiences
and achievements, (Gov.UK, 2011, p. 17), and this is supported by Ellis & McCabe (2003, p. 85) stating that men
apply for positions where they can do 40‐50 percent of the tasks, where women only apply for positions where are
can do 95‐100 percent of the tasks. Men have the confidence in themselves to learn and grow on the job, (Ellis &
McCabe, 2003, p. 85), where women feel them must be able to complete all tasks before applying. This shows that
confidence in learning and growing is a issue for women that creates a barrier to leadership.
Poor self confidence held by women during interviews is reflected in the judgements made by the panel which is
generally occupied by men. It seems that ”women’s experiences and their advancement, are often too dependent on
whether they are lucky enough to have a manager or sponsor who is supportive and inclusive” (Male Champions of
Change, 2013, p. 10). This lottery of support may have large implications on the level of confidence a woman holds in
herself and her abilities. For Annette Dixon a New Zealand women and a Director of the World Bank since 1999 she
discusses the need to choose “your boss over the job” (Ellis & McCabe, 2003, p. 55) for not only personal happiness
but career progression in the book
Woman 2 Woman New Zealand women share their experience of career and
business
. Perhap choosing your leader and mentor is more important for women and career development than for
men, as the difference between attitudes of these leaders will have great effect on the career progress of women.

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Hannah McIntosh ID 12869790 MGT736
The quality of the management leading rising women can also be at fault for contributing to the confidence issue as
career designs may benefit men over women, for example “at the graduate level, women were perceived to be more
capable of taking on stakeholder engagement and networking roles. As a result more men were directed to
analytical roles. Then at more senior levels women were penalised for having insufficient time in analytical roles”
(Male Champions of Change, 2013, p. 26). This career path design disadvantaged women because of their strengths
in the beginning with external stakeholders, perhaps women are better trained in skills they struggle with, rather
than natural talent. So perhaps the issue is with matching organisational goals with female employees in a dynamic
business environment where planning is difficult (Schein, 1990 p.1). This misdirection perhaps is a symptom of stage
three of the EODAA model where mentoring and training in provided for women, but its is misguided towards
organisational goals, rather than social justice, (Rosener, 1995, p. 81) and the progression of women.
Direction for a women’s career can come in the form of a career anchor which is, “the evolving self concept of what
one is good at, what one’s needs and motives are, and what values governs work related choices” (Schein, 1990 p.2).
However this does not evolve until five to ten years is spent in the workforce.
In contrast to female risk aversion women were found to be higher risk takers in social settings, this is at their
advantage in meetings as they can “ask the awkward questions more often, decisions are less likely to be nodded
through and so are likely to be better” (Gov.UK, 2011p. 8). This avoids the yes men and group think issues as women
are willing to raise they voice if they believe they opinion is valuable. An example of this is found in Kaiser &
Wallace’s (2014, p. 17) research finding that while both male and female executives did not like a junior male
manager only the female would raise the issue with the junior’s leader, where as the male did not to avoid an
uncomfortable relationship.
1.2.2. Imposter Syndrome
Imposter Syndrome otherwise known as Imposter phenomenon is the occurrence when woman cannot internalise
the success of their achievements and consider themselves’ to be imposters in the organisation, (Clance & Imes,
1978 p. 1). These ”women are more likely either to project the cause of success outward to an external cause (luck)
or to a temporary internal quality (effort) that they do not equate with inherent ability” (Clance & Imes, 1978 p. 2);
(Sandberg & Scovell, 2013, p. 51). They feel as though their achievements are undeserved and worry they will be
discovered as a fraud, (Sakulku & James, 2011, p. 73; Sandberg & Scovell, 2013, p. 49). This feeling of not belonging
can be a symptom of low self confidence discussed above, other symptoms include anxiety, depression, and
frustration related to not meeting set imposed standards of performance (Clance & Imes, 1978 p. 2). This is not
limited to women or culture around 70 percent of people will experience this syndrome at some point in their lives,
(Sakulku & James, 2011, p. 73), so the ability to identify and overcome this syndrome is universally important.
Factors that create this effect are described by Sakulku & James (2011, p. 73) as perfectionism, and the family
situation where the women have siblings who are naturally talented and rewarded for this, while the woman is being
told she ia sensitive or socially adept. This creates a feeling of never being good enough in comparison to her siblings
regardless of accomplishments, and the women are subject to the pressure of social expectation (Clance & Imes,
1978 p. 3). This perfectionist trait is commonly found in high achieving women, (Kaiser & Wallace, 2014, p. 18), and
may be a strong cause for Imposter Syndrome.

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Hannah McIntosh ID 12869790 MGT736
1.3. External Barriers facing female leadership
Identified by Devillard, et al. (2013, p. 12) as collective factors that affect promotion, these are the external
environment influences found to impact a women’s confidence twice as much as internal/individual factors.
1.3.1. Gender Bias
Gender Bias is the unconscious knowledge people hold and the actions taken based on that information, (Ministry of
Women’s Affairs, 2013, p. 4). There is much literature on this barrier as it is considered to be the primary barrier
(Sandberg & Scovell, 2013, p. 69) for women to overcome as it influences recruitment, development, performance
evaluation, and promotion opportunities, (Ministry of Women’s Affairs, 2013, p. 7; Sanderson‐Gammon, 2013, p. 17).
It is suggested that it is by far the most important barrier as it can undermine any effort put towards lowering it in a
silent and pervasive way, (Sanderson‐Gammon, 2013, p. 17).
Bias was described by Sanderson‐Gammon (2013) as a positive or negative belief held about a certain group of
people. This means that unconscious bias is the individual holding these beliefs has no awareness of the impact the
beliefs have on their attitudes and behaviour, about others and themselves, so it often defines their limitations,
(Sandberg & Scovell, 2013, p. 33). This means both men and women may reject the idea of females being capable
successful leaders, but have no understanding exactly why they feel this way.
Identified as an embedded institutional mindset barrier for women by Barsh & Yee (2011, p.6); (2012, p.7) it has
taken away opportunities based on the assumptions of what women want without consulting them. For example a
women was not offered a career opportunity because she was “pregnant and we assumed she didn’t want to move”
(Barsh & Yee, Unlocking the full potential of women at work, 2012, p.7).
Research cited by Patel (2013) by Development Dimension International stated that the assumption that women are
less ambition and committed to the company as they have family responsibility is present and inaccurate in the
workplace. This assumption is a result of Gender Bias, men and women alike assume the differing priorities of
professional females based on the accepted expectations of women in society, and their own personal values, which
are shaped by their family and national culture. Unconscious Gender Bias is fuelled by the “dominance of male
values” (Sanderson‐Gammon, 2013, p. 12) in the workplace, creating the paradigm of leadership traits being
masculine. These assumptions about women and the leadership paradigm of masculine traits are symptoms of stage
two of the EODAA model, where the only perception of successful leadership is masculine, (Rosener, 1995).
The same bias but by another name is ”second generation Gender Biases” (Patel, 2013, p. 9), “which is the powerful
and invisible barriers created by cultural assumptions and organizational structures, practices, and patterns of
interaction that inadvertently benefit men while putting women at a disadvantage” (Ibarra, et al. 2013, p. 6). A well
known term for this barrier is the glass ceiling which is the invisible barrier that stops women’s progression up the
corporate ladder, (Jakobsh, 2004, p. 1). In fact the majority of women do not know they have been victims of gender
discrimination, and deny it when it is clearly a fact (Ibarra, et al. 2013, p.5), this may be because it is assumed to not
be a deliberate conscious action, (Price Waterhouse Cooper, 2008, p. 1), and it is expected in today’s modern world
that all people are gender blind during business activities, which is stage five of the EODAA model.
Gender Bias could stem from the Western’s patriarchal society which expects males to be superior and more
powerful than women who are inferior, lacking in power and secondary to men, (Jakobsh, 2004, p. 1) An example of
this western attitude is that leaders are required to be assertive and decisive, whereas women are to be caring,
friendly and selfless (Patel, 2013, p. 20; Rosener, Way Women Lead, 1990 p. 122). This means that there are
assumptions that “women are presented as not aggressive enough, lacking the self‐confidence required for the job,
and not being serious enough about their careers to climb the corporate ladder” (Jakobsh, 2004, p.3). Sanderson‐
Gammon (2013) found that the organisational cultures of her participants only nurtured the masculine leadership
style, this meant that females leaders must display those traits to be accepted, a female participant in her study
commented on this stating:

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Hannah McIntosh ID 12869790 MGT736
“You certainly have to be resilient. The senior women here are all quite similar and tough. Resolute. You
can’t be emotional. There’s little tolerance for that” (Sanderson‐Gammon, 2013, p.22)
This shows that anything but the male traits is seen as unsuitable for leadership, so these women have adapted to
their roles by being less feminine in the perception of society. Gender Bias has also manifested itself in gender
segregation in industries, this will be discussed in the
Symptoms of Barriers section 1.4 below.
Described as gender‐centred perspective women have been socialised to behaviour in certain ways that conflict with
the paradigm of leadership, (Fagenson, 1990 p. 268). The expectation for women to fit into the box of correct
behaviour means they must choose between “being liked or perceived competence” (Patel, 2013, p. 20; Ibarra, et al.
2013, p. 7; Sandberg & Scovell, 2013, p. 68). This mismatch of the societal expectations of women and the masculine
paradigm of leadership places women in a double bind, (Kaiser & Wallace, 2014, p.17; Sandberg & Scovell, 2013, p.
74) which is a “situation in which a person is confronted with two irreconcilable demands or a choice between two
undesirable courses of action” (Oxford University Press, 2014). This all means that women are either seen as to
aggressive, or not aggressive enough for leadership (Ministry of Women’s Affairs, 2013, p.5; Sanderson‐Gammon,
2013; Sandberg & Scovell, 2013, p.30).
Contrasting to the above findings Kaiser & Wallace (2014) conducted a Data Based Gender Audit getting men and
women of ranging organisational positions from executive to employee to rate each other on leadership qualities.
They found that there was little evidence of Gender Bias from men towards women, rather women judge each other
and themselves the most harshly. Perhaps it is women enforcing barriers upon each other by holding traditional
societal norms against each other, and not moving past stage one of the EODAA model.
Another explanation offered by Kaiser & Wallace (2014, p. 20) is that women are excellent implementers and
technical experts when they apply themselves to a task, this makes them appear to tactical when it comes to ideas,
as they explain how to get there instead of the long term why of strategic action. Women become the right hand of
men getting tasks done that may seem impossible so when promotion arises it is the idea man not the implementer
women that receives it. This supports the fact that women are very capable, perhaps to capable making them
invalueable to move from a particular position, (Kaiser & Wallace, 2014, p.20).
1.3.1.1.Sexism
A symptom of this bias is sexism in the work place which can range from “low level sexual humour, sexual slang and
comments targeted at gender” (Sanderson‐Gammon, 2013, p. 12), her research in barrier for women in the public
service sector found that only half the organisations viewed sexism as a problem based on the number of complaints
made. However the nature of low level sexual humour makes sexism difficult to identify or address as it often comes
across as playful and good natured. The issue is that “women felt socially coerced to accept sexism through
paternalistic gestures or through ‘jokes’… highlights the subtle or surreptitious nature of sexism in the workplace”
(Sanderson‐Gammon, 2013, p. 21). A female participant in Sanderson‐Gammon’s (2013) study stated:
“This organisation is quite overtly sexist… It’s not horrible, there’s nothing awful about it – it’s done through
humour. That’s really insidious. Or it’s done through paternalistic behaviour. So the boys look after the girls.
They’re really kind to us, you know. But it’s so patronising and paternalistic. But it’s also difficult to challenge
because there’s a kindness, there’s no malice, there’s a kindness about it” (Sanderson‐Gammon, 2013, p. 20).
This behaviour does have an effect on women, positive or negative depending on the individual and the culture of
the organisation. Negative influence can make women feel “powerless, objectified, and nauseated” (Ellis & McCabe,
2003, p. 82) which is unacceptable in today’s modern world of equal rights. The fact that it is conducted in good will
and playful manner is what makes in difficult to stop without causing issues which is another way Gender Bias in
men particulary is undermining women’s attempts at reaching leadership.
Understanding this unconcious bias if difficult as it is a process unseen, legislation has been put in place in many
countries to counter its effects however it is argued that despite the obligations to law the lack of commitment of
society to ensure women reach higher positions undermines the statute, (Sanderson‐Gammon, 2013, p. 11). New
Zealand lacks strong legislation to assist women, so the lack of support from society increases the struggle for

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Hannah McIntosh ID 12869790 MGT736
women to reach leadership positions (Sanderson‐Gammon, 2013, p. 11). This awareness, lack of commitment but
adherance to legislation is stage two of the EODAA model (Rosener, 1995).
1.3.2. Double Burden Syndrome
Double Burden Syndrome as described by Patel (2013, p. 9; Desvaux, et al. 2007, p.7) is the challenge faced by many
women pursuing a full time demanding career, while still being responsible for the majority of home duties, and this
conflict becomes more disruptive as women climbs the corporate ladder, (Brown, 2010, p. 480). Barsh & Yee (2011,
p. 6); (2012, p. 6) identified this as a lifestyle choice barrier where women are generally the primary caregiver of the
household and must sacrifice their career progression to fulfil home commitments. This may be because women
have been condition from an early age to put the highest importance on family well‐being (Fagenson, 1990 p. 268).
Brown’s (2010, p. 487) research found that the majority of participants (working mothers), regardless of position put
home responsibilities before work tasks, so this is a decision of women.
Desvaux, et al. (2007, p. 8) stated that this is the primary barrier for women pursuing leadership as it cannot be
reconciled, over 95 percent of the female participants felt that having a child or being of childbearing age was a
disadvantage.
According to Statistics New Zealand Time Use Survey 2009‐2010 men spend 1.30 hours per day on household work
(table 2.2a) compared to women who spend 2.32 hours per day on household work (table 2.2b). Another
comparison can be made in childcare as women spend an average 0.46 hours per day (table 2.2b) compared to
men’s 0.18 hours per day (table 2.2a). These times do not include, purchasing goods, personal care, or any other
unpaid activity. Again this is reflected in table 3.2 where full time employed males spend on average 2.01 hours on
unpaid household duties, compare to full time employed female who spend an average 3.02 hours on the same
duties. This shows that in New Zealand women do suffer from Double Burden Syndrome, and this may be attributed
to western paradigm of gender roles creating Gender Bias.
Another facet of this syndrome is that the women who carry the Double Burden often are discriminated against in
the work force because of their home responsibilities, with the perception that one cannot be fully committed to
both the home and work place, this creates another obstacle to advancement for mothers pursuing leadership,
(Metz, 2005, p. 2). Senior leaders hesitate to offer opportunities to mothers that involve more stress and travel as
they believe perhaps subconsciously it will be too much for them to handle, Barsh & Yee (2011, p. 2); (2012, p. 6).
This aligns with stage two of the EODAA model where women are seen as an issue to be managed, and different
barriers are recognised as an issues for women when pursuing leadership, however no significant changes are made,
(Rosener, 1995).
Metz (2005, p. 12) stated that home responsibilities changes the path women take to reach high leadership positions
as their time must be managed differently than a childless women, her research sought to discover whether having
children created different barriers from women pursuing high leadership positions. It was found that “family
responsibilities and work discontinuity are more likely to be reported as barriers by mothers” (Metz, 2005, p. 12),
where as “personality traits and lack of promotion or work opportunity by non‐mothers” (Metz, 2005, p. 12). So
either way women have barriers, perhaps mothers face more because home commitments must be overcome
before facing issues around personality traits and lack of opportunities.
For some women there is a choice to either have children or a career, but both during the same period of time is
seen as to difficult to achieve. For example in the book
Woman 2 Woman New Zealand women share their
experiences of career and business
Theresa Gattung CEO of Telecom from 1999 to 2007 states
“I have chosen to not have kids and so I am not juggling that, which of huge importance to many women.
Real success whether it’s artistic, corporate or political, does require periods perhaps years, perhaps decades
of single minded focus. That requires making a certain choice for a period of time” (Ellis & McCabe, 2003, p.
14).

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Hannah McIntosh ID 12869790 MGT736
This is the opinion of a successful women who is a role model and mentor for rising women, who see that a family
and career can’t be had during the same period, another example from Brown’s (2014, p. 280) research quotes a
female participant explaining the choice between work and home duties.
“It is very hard to be both a good mother and a good employee. I have chosen to be a good employee and
my family life suffers because of the time I devote to work” (Brown, 2010, p. 12).
Desvaux, et al. (2007, p. 14) stated that as seniority increases the percentage of women with children decreases, but
this is opposite for male. They discuss that women must follow to male dominant model of linear career progression
that prioritises career over family, and women stand to lose more following this than men. This indicated the double
bind again where women believe a choice must be made between family or career.
“As long as women bear the brunt of unpaid household tasks, childcare, and caring for ageing parents, it will be
difficult to realise their full potential in paid work” (Guuria, 2012, p. 2). It seems that until home work is recognised
as equally as important as career work, female orientated tasks in western culture will remain under valued in
comparison to men’s. Considering the phrase ‘work life balance’, it places the two at odds with each other so how
could work ever win, (Sandberg & Scovell, 2013, p. 41).
1.3.3. Lack of female role models
A role model is defined as “a person looked to by others as an example to be imitated” (Oxford University Press,
2014), where as “mentoring is an arrangement whereby an individual who has experience and knowledge in a
particular field can actively guide and offer support to facilitate the learning or development of another person”
(Jakobsh, 2004, p. 3). The lack of women in senior leadership is identified as a structural barrier for women as there
is no leading by example to inspire and fuel progression, (Barsh & Yee, 2011, p.6; 2012, p.6).
Fitzpatrick’s (2011, p. 13) research investigated the appointment process of Chief Executive (CE) in New Zealand’s
Public Service sector with a focus on women and found a high percentage of interviewees felt a lack of female role
models was a barrier to aspiring and applying to CE roles. The absence of females in top positions gives the
impression that it is an undesirable place for a women or that opportunities are very limited, (Price Waterhouse
Cooper, 2008, p. 3), and the fact that female leaders had to display male characteristics was a deterrent to those
aspiring to senior roles, (Sanderson‐Gammon, 2013, p. 22). This low number of role models has suggested that being
a female leader is a liability, and also discredited current female leaders in the eyes of the aspiring women leaders as
a good sources of advice and support, (Ibarra, et al. 2013, p. 6). Considering the double bind choice women leaders
must make between children or career, women who want both may reject female leaders with no family
commitments. So despite a presence of a senior female leaderships their crediblity is undermined either by their
leadership style which has needed to be more masculine, their family situation, or by the sheer lack of numbers
making it appear to be an undesirable position, and easy to dislike, (Sandberg & Scovell, 2013, p. 86).
This masculine approach was seen as not authentic or appealing to women who wished to lead in their natural more
feminine way, a female participant stated in Sanderson‐Gammon’s (2013) research:
“They might want the role, but if they can’t do it in an authentically natural way, if they have to do it in a way
that is perceived to be the way to do it in the public sector, then they don’t want to go there… So you’ve got
two choices – you either do the same thing, because that’s how you succeed, or you walk away” (Sanderson‐
Gammon, 2013, p. 22).
This perception women hold that there is only one way to lead, a view held in the second stage of the EODAA model,
(Rosener, 1995), accompanied with the lack of female role models showing them different has meant they can only
rely on what they know to be successful strategies. Which are the ones they have always used. “Women tend to use
communication and behaviour strategies that have worked for them in the past, whereas men will imitate strategies
used by their seniors” (Patel, 2013, p. 20). So men copy their role models and adapt accordingly to the situation,
where women who have so few role models they trust choose to use only that they know will work, this is a strong
disadvantage when addressing unknown circumstances that require specific behaviours or strategies.

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Hannah McIntosh ID 12869790 MGT736
Wittenberg‐Cox (2014, p. 3) discusses the fact that many organisations implement mentoring programmes to assist
women in reaching higher positions, although this is of good nature it does imply that women has something missing,
rather than the organisation. Witten‐Cox (2014, p. 3) goes further stating the women are now over mentored but
still under promoted suggesting that mentoring alone is not an answer.
1.3.4. Career Breaks
“A Career Break is an extended period of time that is several months or years out of the workforce. Broadly, there
are two groups of women taking Career Breaks: those who leave the workforce entirely, and those who maintain an
ongoing relationship with their employer” (Ministry of Women’s Affairs, 2013, p. 10). Women are more likely to have
a non‐linear career path, as they spend more time with family commitments, (Patel, 2013, p. 20). The Ministry of
Women’s Affairs (2013, p. 20) stated family commitments are not only motherhood but as a caregiver for elderly,
since the life expectancy of the human race increases, there is an expectation from society for women to be the
primary care giver. This enforces a Career Break on women as “they feel pressured to fulfil this role” (Ministry of
Women’s Affairs, 2013, p. 20), Pressure also builds from a women’s own biology, the time when she needs to
dedicated to her career is also the time she is best conditioned to have children, (Sandberg & Scovell, 2013, p.26).
This expectation could be another symptom of Gender Bias, as roles are allocated by gender rather than ability.
However caring for family was not the only reason for a Career Break for women, one in four left the work force to
pursue education according to Ministry of Women’s Affairs (2013, p. 21). So the issue here identified by Desvaux, et
al. (2007, p. 9) is the ‘opting out’ of the career progression to fulfil other roles and then not returning to work in full
capacity in either time or ambition.
Strong pull factors that remove women from the work force include child or elderly care, or relocation for a partner’s
employment opportunity, (Cabrera, 2007, p. 1). Pull factors based around family responsibilities are intensified by
push factors which include unsatisfactory job design, lack of stimulation or opportunity, and feeling as though the
work is meaningless, (Ministry of Women’s Affairs, 2013, p. 12). The stereotype linear work life trajectory then is a
barrier to women pursuing leadership position as they generally have a Career Break in their 20’s or 30’s to forfill
family commitments. “Traditionally the most common route to professional success has not included Career Breaks
and visible caring responsibilities. Many women’s career trajectories plateau following parental leave events –
people often assume women are more interested in a job, rather than a career” (Male Champions of Change, 2013,
p. 32). This assumption is built on the Gender Bias of women being caregivers and not leaders, it seems to be seen
pursuing both leadership and caring for family is to be seen as not fully committing to either.
1.3.4.1.Flexible work hours
On the return from a Career Break generally a women considers flexible working hours to be extremely important,
(Ministry of Women’s Affairs, 2013, p. 14), and is defined as nominating the hours and days the employee will work
rather than sticking to a schedule set by the employer, (Ellis & McCabe, 2003, p. 60).
However taking the flexible working option has been seen as a career staller or career suicide having a negative
effect on future progression, (Ministry of Women’s Affairs, 2013, p. 15), this is because the concept of leadership
and part time hours do not match well within the expectations of society and management, for example:
“We heard one senior executive say, ‘I would not expect part‐timers to achieve the highest performance
ranking because their job is obviously not their priority.’” (Male Champions of Change, 2013, p. 28).
This statement was obtained through focus groups of executives, and shows exactly the attitude women balancing
the Double Burden Syndrome are road blocked by, a lack of openness in senior leaders leave willing and capable
women leaders trapped in middle management. This is reflected in the fact that less than three percent of managers
and one percent of senior executives work part time, (Barsh & Yee, 2012, p. 7), so for women to retain a senior role
requires full dedication to work tasks.
It is expected that to hold a senior leadership role you must be fully committed to the hours and obligations, which
goes against the Gender Bias belief of women being home makers first and foremost, so already many resist the

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concept of returning mothers and caregivers hold senior positions. Organisational structure perspective supports
this barrier as it identifies that it is in fact the processes and structure of an organisation that dictates female
behaviour and ultimately their ability to progress up the corporate ladder, (Fagenson, 1990 p. 269).
Sanderson‐Gammon (2013, p. 24) stated that to be seen putting in the long hours is to show commitment and
improves the chance of promotion, and even found one organisation would not allow part time work for any senior
roles. A female participant in her study commented on flexible hours saying:
“I think the high expectations, demands and I have to say the male paradigm of senior leadership, requires
that in order to be successful, you need to be able to … look almost be married to your job. It has to be a
priority, and I think that’s more difficult for women” (Sanderson‐Gammon, 2013, p. 24)
More difficult for women because of the Gender Bias of expectations of the role women must play, and the Double
Burden Syndrome increasing their work load compared to their male counterparts. This can be seen as a double
edged sword making the choice between family or a career, maybe this is caused by organisational culture and
practices based around the myth of an ideal employee with no family responsibilities and a single minded focus on
work, (Ministry of Women’s Affairs, 2013, p. 16). So the design of work hours is still focused on the concept that
employees have little other responsibilities away from work, and there remains the expectation that work tasks must
come first. One member of MCC stated:
“Many of our organisations have had flexible options in place for years, but we have not redesigned jobs
and workplaces to suit” (Male Champions of Change, 2013, p. 28)
It is recognised here that organisations offer flexible hours but do not encourage or support it with job designs,
instead it is seen as a disadvantage to put other responsibilities in front of employment.
“Jobs and career paths need to be redesigned with consideration to people with caring and career
responsibilities, or the ‘Double Burden ” (Male Champions of Change, 2013, p. 32), and it is recognised that
the status quo does not consider women and their additional challenges, (Price Waterhouse Cooper, 2008, p.
3)
This could be achieived through technology as it has allowed employees to have work place flexibility, however
Sanderson‐Gammon (2013, p. 24) mentions that this flexibility also creates an expectation of being constantly
available, and able to complete work.
MCC discussed the issue with childcare being a problem that generally women must carry, highlighting that most
parents “can manage the day‐to‐day juggle, but reconciling 12 weeks of school holidays per year with four weeks of
annual leave forces many – often women – out of the workforce, or to reduced roles” (Male Champions of Change,
2013, p. 36). So the lack of child care plus the expectation of long hours to hold a leadership position places women
in a double bind where they must choose career or family.
Currently New Zealand legislation allocates 14 weeks paid maternity leave with an addition 52 weeks of unpaid leave
available, while the position is held open for the women to return. This is provided that she meets the criteria of a
minimum of ten hours per week for at least the past six months at the predicted birth date (Ministry of Business
Innovation & Employment, 2014).
1.3.5. Old Boys’ Network
The Old Boys’ Network (OBN) is commonly known as men who have travelled to leadership journey together
promoting each other during to friendship, similar educations and interests,
(Jakobsh, 2004, p. 2). This could
otherwise be known as ‘Mini Me’ syndrome where senior leaders unconsciously promote successors similar to
themselves in gender, age, and experience, (Price Waterhouse Cooper, 2008, p. 11).
Sanderson‐Gammon (2013, p. 18) research found that organisations with a high percentage of males had a
prevalence of informal networks that assisted men in the advancement of their careers. One female participant in
her study stated:

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“We have really strong ‘family’ networks, not literally, but really strong family networks within the
organisation and they employ their own. So, you know, there’s a whole bunch of boys, men, middle aged/old
white men, that sit in senior roles in the organisation and they employ likeness” (Sanderson‐Gammon, 2013,
p. 18).
Alongside this observation it was suggested that these senior men within the organisations believed that women
were not interested or capable of being part of the informal networks unless they pursued male hobbies including
rugby or golf. This assumption of a lack of interested in participating in the informal networking is a symptom of
stage three of the EODAA model where an understanding that women are seeking careers not jobs is only beginning
to spread through the organisation, (Rosener, 1995). This understanding is yet to translate into inclusion of women
for mutual benefit.
Jakobsh (2004, p. 2) described this also as women tend to be excluded from informal gatherings that build business
relationships and deals, this is because of a tendency to socialise with those of the same gender, organisational roles,
and career prospects, Ibarra, et al. (2013, p. 7). This lack of access to informal networking a potential opportunities is
identified as a structural obstacle for women by Barsh & Yee (2011, p. 6); (2012, p.6).
For women the Double Burden Syndrome has left little time for informal socialising to build professional networks,
especially when this socialising is often centred on male activities such as sport, (Ministry of Women’s Affairs, 2013,
p. 16). So the effect of the Double Burden Syndrome assists in the segregation of women from men in these informal
gatherings. Sanderson‐Gammon (2013, p. 18) found that men often discuss their sporting achievements during
interviews rather than academic experiences and this built connections with male interviewers, who are the majority
of the senior management so the majority of the interviewing panel. Men are more likely to have mentors and
networks who help them with career progression compared to women, (Ibarra, et al. 2013, p. 7).
It seems that the exclusion from informal socialising from the Double Burden Syndrome coupled with the lack of
roles models has put women well behind men when pursuing leadership.
1.4. Symptoms of Barriers
1.4.1. Leaky Pipeline Theory
This theory is neither an external or internal barrier but rather a symptom from a combination of both; it is the loss
of female talent as seniority increases in an organisation. Described as the alternative theory the Glass Ceiling, the
Leaky Pipeline loses women at every transitional point on the way to the top, (Devillard, et al. 2013, p. 8; Sandberg &
Scovell, 2013, p. 27), this is shown in Appendix Six where 52 percent of entry level employee are women, but only 2
percent move upwards to reach the Chief Executive position. Women in New Zealand are over half the working
population (Statistics New Zealand, 2006), and both genders are recruited at an equal rate but women are lost from
the pipeline twice as much as men during the mid career point. This loss can be seen in senior leadership positions
where women’s representation is low, (Price Waterhouse Cooper, 2008, p. 3). This is due to women taking lower
roles, voluntary termination without giving the organisation an opportunity to address issues, or women being
unable to progress to senior leadership from middle management, this last point has been identified as a critical leak
with only a very small number of women progressing from middle to senior positions, (Barsh & Yee, 2012, p. 2).
Voluntary termination is a symptom of stage two of the EODAA model, where high female absenteeism and
employee turnover is recognised as detrimental to the organisation, but little is done to correct it, (Rosener, 1995).
1.4.2. Women’s Pay Disparity
The International Women’s Forum (IWF) formed in 1982 was established to educate people on the capabilities of
women around the world. IWF commissions a research project focused on the differences between male and female
leaders conducted by Judy B Rosener, Daniel McAllister, & Gregory Stephens, they found that women leaders earn
the same as their male counterpart which is a contradiction to most literature today, however they also discovered
that both male and female senior leaders paid women subordinates and average of $12,000 less a year, than their
male counterparts, (Rosener, 1990 p.121).

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Hannah McIntosh ID 12869790 MGT736
In New Zealand in 2014 women are paid on average 9.9 percent less than men with the cause suggested to be lack of
flexible working arrangements, Gender Bias limiting available work, and gender segregation accounting for at least
30 percent of pay disparity, (Ministry of Women’s Affairs, 2014).
1.4.3. Gender Segregation in Industries
Identified by Jakobsh (2004 pp. 1‐2) as the symptom of Gender Bias in which men and women have careers accepted
as appropriate for their gender by society. Gender segregation or occupational sex segregation is the concentration
of women or men in certain industries and the pay disparity that results from that (Beller, 1982 p. 11). Women tend
to choose occupations that exist in lowering paying industries with fewer career progression opportunities, and this
accounts for at less 30 percent of the pay disparity between men and women, (Ministry of Women’s Affairs, 2014).
Industries dominated by women include “Retail Trade and Accommodation, Healthcare and Social Assistance, and
Education and Training industries” (Ministry of Women’s Affairs, 2014), where men and concentrated in construction
and manufacturing (Ministry of Women’s Affairs, 2014).
The Gender Bias is a factor that has influenced the industries women choose to enter, as they are expected to be
Mothers, Nurse, Teachers and community Volunteers all of which require traits of cooperation, gentleness,
supportiveness and understanding (Rosener, 1990 p. 123) all of which are feminine qualities.
In addition to segregation across industries (horizontal segregation), there is also segregation in the hierarchy of
organisations (vertical segregation), with the majority of women concentrated at in lower managerial positions.

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Hannah McIntosh ID 12869790 MGT736
2. Research Methodology
The philosophical approach to be taken for this research is interpretive constructionism which recognises that
human behaviour is subjective to perception of individuals involved in the primary research, and the researcher
themselves (Bryman & Bell, 2007, p. 23), or the Phenomenological paradigm (Easterby‐Smith, Thorpe, & Lowe, 1999
p. 27). I consider my approach to research and learning as broad and intuitive, which makes me cyclical in deductive
to inductive, as I hold theories to barriers, and then as I gather data I re‐evaluate my theories. I followed the
inductive method and considered my theories as the data develops, then reflected on them in the final stages of the
research. I am open minded, flexible, and observant so the research is qualitative as it comes more naturally too me.
The outcomes of the research will add to the body of knowledge known about women’s leadership barriers.
This is a self generated descriptive research project that will investigate
How aware are women of the barriers they
must overcome when pursuing leadership positions in New Zealand, and what strategies did they use to overcome
them?
. To achieve this, the following objectives were completed:
Identify known and accepted barriers faced by women in western countries particularly New Zealand, using
databases, peer review scholar articles, government, intergovernmental, and non‐government organisation
reports.
Identify barriers New Zealand women has personally experienced and their strategies used to overcome
them if any, and compare to the known and accepted barriers identified by the secondary research.
Utilising inductive non experimental research methods (Veal, 2005 pp. 26‐27), both secondary and primary research
will be used to ensure reliable results. The gender organisation system approach described by Fagenson (1990 pp.
270‐272), will be applied which recognises that society’s expectations and the structure, policies and processes of
organisations have influence over the career progression of women.
These methods have been chosen to assist good triangulation of environmental variables, and as the small 15 week
time frame allows for both primary and secondary research to be conduct in this approach effectively, and is a
requirement to pass MGT736.
2.1. Secondary Research
An exploratory literature review (Veal, 2005, p. 84) was conducted to answer the first objective of identifying known
and accepted barriers faced by women in western countries with a particular focus on New Zealand, using databases,
peer review scholar articles, government, intergovernmental, and non‐government organisation reports. This was to
build and accurate picture of what is already known to be barriers for women in pursuing leadership so it can be
compared to the data collected from the primary research, after which a second draft of the literature review will be
written to fill any data gaps identified through primary data findings.
Secondary sources utilized
Peer reviewed scholar articles
Relevant case studies written on female leadership and female leadership barriers
Credible studies of both quantitative and qualitative nature about female leadership, female leadership
barriers, and female behaviour throughout their career to support scholar articles evidence
Public information provided by Statistics New Zealand, Human Rights Commission, UN Women, Common
Wealth, accessible online (Government, non government, and intergovernmental reports)
Other information about female leadership and its barriers will be review and considered carefully as
they present bias and may not be fully reliable

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Hannah McIntosh ID 12869790 MGT736
To collect this data I have utilised databases available through NMIT library such as Proquest, Nelson Marlborough
Institute of Technology Library collection, Nelson Public Library collection, Google scholar, the Supervisor’s network
of academic researchers, and the internet.
To ensure reliable research the researcher has used authors or research prominent in this field, through recognition
of their presence in research and media articles, and the most recent statistics available to the researcher. Material
considered for inclusion was based on a publishing date after 1977, this timeframe is recognised as large but the
article written by Pauline Rose Clance & Suzanne Imes from 1978, as this is a founding document of Imposter
Syndrone a prominent internal barrier for women and cannot be ignored. Consideration of bias was noted in
reviewing literature, and articles that were deemed to feminist without a business performance focus were
discarded.
2.2. Primary Research
Qualitative primary research was undertaken in the form of questionnaire based interviews, (Veal, 2005, p. 128) this
method was chosen due to the subjective personal nature of the barriers experienced by women that provided
complex varied answers, (Veal, 2005, p. 128). The researcher will use open ended questions (See Appendix Three)
and a semi‐structured format creating a conversational experience for the participants while following three of
Whyte’s hierarchy of interviewer responses cited by Veal (2005, p. 130), with is the following
1. “‘Uh‐huh’ which indicates that the interviewer is listening.
2. ‘That’s interesting’ encourages expansion on the answer
3. Reflection repeating statements as a question” (Veal, 2005 pp. 130‐131)
To compliment Whyte’s methods is the probing techniques of Easterby‐Smith, et al. (1999) were used, these
included:
“Explanatory probe, which builds on vague incomplete answers “What do you mean by..”
Focused probe, which focuses on gaining specific data “What did you do..”
Mirroring, which is repeating in the researchers own words, the interpretation of the answer for
clarification” (Easterby‐Smith, et al. 1999 p. 80)
Sample selection
Possible participants were identified through an internet search of New Zealand’s top 200 companies, the Global
Women’s membership profiles, and the Supervisor’s network. From this 40 women were emailed the letter of
invitation of which 20 accepted the request to participate, however the scope and limitations of the research
required a limit of 11 participants. After approval from the NMIT Ethics Committee the 11 participants were sent the
Participant’s Information Sheet and Consent form (See Appendices One and Two) to read and understand for a
minimum of five days prior to the interview. On‐going emails around availability of interview times and the
timeframe of the research were exchanged to organise suitable times and build rapport.
The final sample size consisted of 11 women in senior leadership positions in medium to large private, public and
non‐governmental organisations. The summary of the demographics of the participants are discussed in the Findings
section 3.1 below.
Interview Procedure
All interviews were recorded with a digital dictaphone and were held either in person at a local café, over the
telephone or Skype. The researcher strived for high professionalism in personal grooming and social behaviour as
the social interaction with the participants did have some form of influence on the level of trust and the willingness
reveal information.

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Hannah McIntosh ID 12869790 MGT736
At the beginning the participant was informed that recording will begin, and ask if they have read, understood, and
accept the consent form conditions. Four demographic questions were asked, then an introduction statement about
the format of the interview explaining the types of barriers (internal and external), and that each barrier will be
briefly explained then a question would be asked, there were eight specific barrier questions asked. During the
answers the Easterby‐Smith, et al. (1999) probe techniques was used to gain more in depth answers, and mirroring
of responses to ensure accuracy and invite any further explanation. Each interview took around 30 minutes to
complete, and any information requiring further explanation was sought through emailing the participants.
Confidentiality Precautions
A new Skype account was created for the purpose of the research, and deleted after completion; this was to build
trust with the participant with an appropriately named Skype account, and to protect their privacy from other users.
Interviews were recorded with a digital Dictaphone, with additional observation notes voice recorded after the
interview by the researcher and the hard copy destroyed. All files were immediately transferred into a password
protected file on the researcher’s laptop, and a back up copy stored in a password protected file in the researchers
external hard drive (See Appendix Four – Ethical Considerations). During the process of analysis Microsoft Excel and
Office files were generated from the primary data, these were all stored securely under password protection with
audio recordings. At the completion of the research all files identifying the participants were destroyed.
Primary Data Analysis
Grounded theory analysis was used to analyse the primary data, this involved searching out emerging themes with
ongoing development of concepts from the data in a recursive nature with secondary data, (Easterby‐Smith, et al.
1999 p.108; Bryman & Bell, 2007, p. 585). This analysis method was chosen as it frames the complexity of the
answers, and it is an open ended research method to encourage further future research in emergent themes
(Bryman & Bell, 2007, p. 592).
Summary transcriptions of each question was written by the researcher and entered into an excel spreadsheet for
coding and initial analysis. Here data was broken into component parts and measured in number of responses
similar to content analysis where words or phrases are counted in literature (Easterby‐Smith, et al. 1999 p. 105).
Familiarisation of the data was done through listening to interview recordings and reading summarised transcripts
which allowed the initial thoughts on emergent themes to develop, (Easterby‐Smith, et al. 1999 p. 109; Veal, 2005, p.
295). After this point reflection on the data gathered was done by the researcher to better digest the large amounts
of information, this involved a revisit to the secondary research concepts for clarification on concepts, (Easterby‐
Smith, et al. 1999 p. 109).
Conceptualisation involved identifying barrier variables (Easterby‐Smith, et al. 1999 p. 109; Veal, 2005, p.295) within
the summary transcriptions of the question, this included demographic questions answers are their apparent impact
on the research question answers (eg, Industry type, age of participant and family structure). Cataloguing the
developing concepts and coding (Easterby‐Smith, et al. 1999 p. 110) was done through a word document containing
the summary transcriptions of each question and additional notes. Key words, concepts, personal experiences and
overcoming strategies were colour coded to provide a quick reference for the researcher.
The researcher then could more clearly link together variables and concepts from the coding (Easterby‐Smith, et al.
1999 p. 111) allowing for emergent themes to be identified using a conceptual framework method, (Veal, 2005, p.
297).This visual method assisted the researcher to better understand the dynamic of barrier variables and their
suggested strategies.
A re‐evaluation of the primary research (Easterby‐Smith et al. 1999 p. 111) revealed gaps in the research to either be
filled by secondary literature, or recommended for future research.

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Hannah McIntosh ID 12869790 MGT736
Primary Data Coding
The researcher choose to code all participants’ response in the summary transcriptions with individual codes for
easier identification of data, and a direct link to the participant’s responses All codes are accompanied by a time in
the interview when the response was roughly provided, EG (PA, 1.23). The following codes were used:

Participants Code
A PA
B PB
C PC
D PD
E PE
F PF
G PG
H PH
I PI
J PJ
K PK

Primary and Secondary Comparison Analysis
Theoretical sampling was used in the latter half of the primary analysis, this was to collect code and analyse data,
and determine what data needed to be collected next, (Bryman & Bell, 2007, p. 459). This process of comparing
primary findings to secondary research identified data gaps in the exploratory literature review that was over looked
during the first draft phase. Additional data was added until theoretical saturation was reached, where no new data
presented itself within the barriers, (Bryman & Bell, 2007, p. 460).
Remaining with the grounded theory method the constant comparison technique (Bryman & Bell, 2007, p. 586) was
used to maintain the relationship between primary conceptualisation and secondary data from the literature review.
A conceptual framework was created from secondary data only to compare to the primary data conceptual frame
work, this allowed the researcher to visually see any differences and draw conclusions from variable influences and
management theory.
2.3. Key Assumptions and limitations
It is recognised that the choice of grounded theory analysed required the transcribed data to be cut into ‘chunks’
which could compromise the context of the answer (Bryman & Bell, 2007, p. 592), skewing the results of the
research.
It was assumed that participants will answer all interview questions openly and honestly, and the researcher was
able to interpret this information accurately. As there is no language barrier, additional data was gathered from the
body language, and tone used by the participants. However as circumstances required some interviews were
conducted by telephone, removing this observation element. This is recognised as a limitation in data collection.
It is recognised that secondary research is limited by the researcher not having fully access to all scholar database,
and private reports still being written for the release in 2014.

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A limitation faced by the primary research method is the timeframe to conduct the interviews; this provided little
time for reflection between interviews, as all were conducted within two weeks.
When conducting the research it is recognised that as I am a women investigating barriers faced by women in the
pursuit of leadership, a journey consider myself to be on, I will carry an unconscious bias that may affect the
interpretation of the data. To minimise this weekly check ins’ with the supervisor was done, and also discussed with
the researcher’s peers, particularly men if the research was feeling their perception is bias. However the privacy of
the participants remained protected as no identifying information was shared.
The researcher recognises that the results may not be generalisable as the sample of women participants may not be
an accurate reflection of the perception held by the larger population of females in New Zealand.

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Hannah McIntosh ID 12869790 MGT736
3. Findings
This research sought to discover what leadership barriers New Zealand women are aware of and had personally
experienced, as well as what strategies they use, or have used, to overcome them. From the literature review seven
barriers were identified and the participants were asked about each one, and their experiences of them. It was
found that all participants were aware of the barriers and had experience the majority of them. This section is
divided into demographic statistics, the specific barriers, and then significant points shared with the interviewer
from the last question.
3.1. Participant Demographics
Eleven women participated in this research. They were from senior management roles which included Regional
Manager, Chief Executive, and Director of NZX listed and non listed organisations (see fig 2). These roles were not
mutually exclusive however, with four participants holding either more than one role being either a Director of more
than one organisation, or a Director and Chief Executive.
Figure 2 Employment Position of Participants
These women were all in the later stages of their careers which provided them with experience in a variety of
industries; five participants had extensive experience in a minimum of two industries.
Figure 3 Participant Involvement in Industries
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Hannah McIntosh ID 12869790 MGT736
The sector with the highest participant involvement was the Banking and Finance Industry, with five participant’s
actively leading in this sector (see fig 3). The New Zealand Public service sectors follows this with two participants
each, the remaining industries all had one participant’s involvement.
Figure 4 Age Range of Participants
Ages ranged from 44 to 65 years with the majority of participants aged between 51 ‐ 60 years. Two were aged
above 60 years, and four were 50 years or below (see fig 4).
Figure 5 Time spent in one Leadership Position
There is a relatively even spread of time spent in one leadership position with the lowest being 1.5 weeks, the
highest 12 years, and the median time of 6 years (see fig 5).

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3.2. Internal Barriers
3.2.1. Low Confidence
Figure 6 Low Confidence Awareness
Low Confidence or the ability to communicate confidence was acknowledged by all participants, bar one, as an issue
for female career progression, however only six (55 percent) had personally experienced it to a significant degree
(see fig 6). It was suggested that women experience this from a self reflective process that has self‐imposed high
performance standards compared to others judgements of their capabilities (PF, 1.25).
A symptom of this Low Confidence identified by the participants was a hesitation to apply for positions they
perceived as outside of their comfort zone; this being a need to be able to fulfill at least 90 percent of the job
description tasks.
“When a man had learnt and covered off 40 percent of his job description he put his hand up for promotion,
where it was very hard to encourage women to put their hand up for promotion unless they felt they were
doing 95 percent of their job fabulously” (PA, 1.46)
It was suggested that women focus on what they cannot do in a position rather than on what they can, and this is an
issue for confidence (PD, 1.06), This was supported by a participant who sat a master’s degree to prepare for a
senior position offered to them, but when she felt prepared the opportunity was gone (PB, 3.50).
The lack of ability to communicate confidence was identified by a participant. The participant’s experience saw
women’s behaviour in meetings as being more polite, with softer voices and less confidence used in communicating
a statement, compared to men. This also included a tendency to wait to comment on issues rather that speaking up
in the first instance (PI, 1.49), and this was supported by another participant’s hesitation to comment on daily issues
in the work place at the beginning of her career for fear of making a mistake.
“I think I took quite a long time to speak up…I was much quieter than the other graduates because I didn’t
really want to make a mistake, so I think I was much more quiet, I think that took a while to get over” (PA,
1.46).
The remaining five participants (45 percent) had on the odd occasion experienced Low Confidence but had observed
it clearly in other women. Some said that on occasion they did feel low in confidence but they would not display it in
their behaviour. It was shared that when leaving tertiary education women felt confident and powerful and it was
time and absence from the work force that lowered their self belief in their abilities (PF, 1.25) (see fig 6).
One participant of the five (9 percent) disagreed with women experiencing Low Confidence as a barrier and
suggested that it was a harsh and innacurate self‐assessment by these women, that created the belief that they do
not hold the exact skill set to competently take on the role.

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“I don’t see a lack of confidence in leadership in women,… I see particularly in government I see women
being very confident leaders… I think in some industries it’s more challenging so in that environment again I
don’t see Low Confidence I see women less putting themselves forward because they’re not confident that
they have the total skill set” (PE, 1.09)
Another participant had never experienced Low Confidence and attributed it to her training in law, which required
public speaking skills and the ability to confidently represent viewpoints from the beginning of her academic career
(PC, 1.18). She did however see Low Confidence in female employees and made a comparison that women strive to
get every task 100 percent correct, whereas men are happy to make a mistake and build from feedback (PC, 1.18).
Another with no significant experience with Low Confidence attributed this to a positive upbringing, empowering
parents, and strong relationships with her father and brothers (PJ, 1.06).
Two participants identified that their confidence was seen as aggressive behaviour which resulted in them being
perceived as “bolshie or difficult to deal with”, and also stated they worked in male‐dominated industries (PG,
1.19;PJ, 1.06). This perception was suggested to be a result of the gender bias belief of women as nurturers, not
leaders.
“We are supposed to be nurturers, not the leaders, so that takes quite a bit of getting over. I think a lot of
women struggle with that, when I met a woman I always say to them you need to be confident and
comfortable in your confidence, but not arrogant in it because whatever you do will be perceived as
arrogant” (PG, 1.19)
It was suggested that another cause of Low Confidence is the reaction women receive when displaying confidence;
their confident behaviour being seen as aggressive or abrasive, rather than assertive.
“I think it is the reaction from other people when you do display confidence. If I can give an example I used
to work in a very male environment, I was the first women in the most senior role… and it was a really
interesting perception not by all but as a generalisation that if a woman was assertive she was often seen as
being aggressive. Yet if a male did it, it was ok….. SO I think that has an impact on a women’s confidence in
that type of environment” (PK, 1.21).
3.2.1.1.Participant Suggested Strategies
It was put forward by the participants that women must apply for positions even if they do not feel capable or
comfortable enough to complete the tasks, and then learn in the position, using mentors, coaches, and sponsors
who have done the position or something similar (PB, 3.50; PG, 1.19).
Also women must change their focus when looking at positions to concentrate on the tasks they can do competently,
ask employers to assist in training and development, or outsource tasks that she cannot currently do until she is
capable (PD, 1.06).
Networking was highlighted as a valuable tool to identify and put women forward for positions that she may not
personally identify as suitable for her skill level, thus pushing her towards greater challenges (PB, 3.50).

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3.2.2. Imposter Syndrome
Figure 7 Imposter Syndrome Awareness
The feeling of being an imposter in their own workplace was experienced significantly by nine (82 percent) of the
participants (see fig 7). Their experiences ranged in severity from those who currently experienced imposter
syndrome every day, to those who only had this feeling when beginning a new position. The experience was
described as the fear of being discovered.
“I think it is something that is incredibly wide spread, you look around and you are waiting for someone to
tap you on the shoulder and how on earth did you get here?” (PJ, 2.16).
Participants also experienced this when receiving awards acknowledging their achievements, describing that they
“hated the focus on me” (PI, 4.36), or felt undeserving.
“I received a prestigious Fullbright Award and the same thing happen when I got a PHD Scholarship for
Cambridge University, I spent most of my time travelling there thinking oh my god they are going to discover
they have chosen the wrong person, because there was a lot of hype about how people who go to
Cambridge University or Fullbright Scholars are very successful, and I thought why have they chosen me?”
(PE, 3.14).
This participant said she struggled to see herself fitting into the success story of the organisation, and still wonders
how she was successful in management roles.
“It was more about me trying to fit myself to the success story of the organisations, I was very confident in
doing what I was doing and when I applied for them I was confident I would get the scholarships or whatever,
probably more than I needed to be, but when I did get it and the story around them and leadership was
played out, I couldn’t match that with my own story of me” (PE, 3.14).
The majority of participants mentioned the network of friends or support they had to manage this feeling, stating
that most of the friends in similar position felt the same way.
“I have a number of friends who are directors….. in a number of very high senior roles, and we talk about
this quite a bit, you know unfortunately it is just something that we are often apologising we say ‘aw I don’t
know how I got here I’ve been lucky’, we put it down to luck” (PA, 3.00).
“The good thing in my network is we joke about this, so somebody is going to find me out, and we tease
each other about it” (PF, 3.04).

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Supporting this two participants openly claimed their success was due to luck or being in the right place at the right
time, and another stated that women “fail into positions and not take opportunities” (PD, 3.26).
Participants suggested the cause of this syndrome was more related to age and experience rather than gender (PC,
2.45), or a lack of confidence, which leads to feelings of inadequacy in the workplace. Another stated this imposter
feeling is caused by the high standards that the women set themselves, combined with the alien feeling of being in a
man’s world (PB, 6.40).
“Part of it is women setting very high standards for ourselves, and also being partly alien in a man’s world,
and so always feeling that you have to be twice as good, work twice as hard, to get half as far….. stress of
think I’m a little bit different and I’ll be found out” (PB, 6.40).
Another suggested that women work diligently but miss out on opportunities, as they do not promote themselves
for the role, rather feeling they must achieve to a certain level before they are no longer an imposter and thus
worthy of promotion (PD, 3.26).
Two participants (18 percent) never experienced the syndrome, with one stating she did not believe women
experienced it, preferring the view that they suffer from Low Confidence (PK, 3.31) (see fig 7). The other felt her
upbringing to “stand by what you believe is true” influenced her attitude to always try her best, and if it was good
enough she was validated to be there (PG, 4.45).
3.2.2.1.Participant Suggested Strategies
Many participants who experienced Imposter Syndrome had a support group either as a group of friends in similar
positions, or a professional network called a “lean in circle” (Sandberg, Lean In Circles, 2014) to regularly discuss
their challenges (PB, 6.40).
Another participant believed you needed to “fake it till you make it to push through barriers” and that you “fill your
own validation bucket” (PD, 3.26), until you feel like you belong at the organisation. This was supported by another
who said that when a woman is older it is easier to see the hard work she has done to reach her goals (PJ, 2.16).
It was suggested that women needed change their focus by convincing themselves that their skills and experiences
would translate into other roles, and to stand by their beliefs (PF, 3.04).
3.3. External Barriers
3.3.1. Gender Bias
Figure 8 Perception of Home and Work personalities
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Participants were asked to describe their perceptions of their work personality in comparison to their home
personality. All participants believed their work and home personalities were very similar, however three (27
percent) (PB, PE, & PI) of the participants (see fig 8) reported partners at home saying, “you’re not at work now” (PE,
8.06) or “take off you CEO hat” (PI, 8.10) or that “I’m not one of your employees” (PB, 13.10). All participants
reflected on the traits that transferred from one environment to another as either being caring, action orientation,
or planning, but one described the difficulty of adapting from a work environment to a home environment.
“In a leadership role as a women you are expected to make decisions, ‘here is my decision’ in different ways
you make the decision in consultation but you are the decision maker as the leader and you carry the can for
that. So what I find most challenging is moving from that particularly when I really busy, to coming home and
then if someone says to me ‘what do you want for dinner?’ That’s like one decision too many” (PE, 8.06).
All participants agreed that the perception of women in leadership was not positive and many described it as being
seen as aggressive, forceful, or difficult. One participant stated she has avoided senior roles as she feels it requires
her to act in a manner she doesn’t agree with and another said “that women need to put on a mask to be taken
seriously” (PB, 13.10).
“We have always had a senior leadership team that was largely women, but I look at it and think I actually
don’t want to behave in a way that they feel they must behave. I held off going there (higher senior roles)”
(PF, 9.00).
One participant stated that as workplace seniority increases there is an expectation for others to listen and follow
you, and that she has observed the need to display male traits to be successful as a leader (PI, 8.10). The bias around
female leaders has been described as a ‘double standard’, as assertive women are seen to be aggressive and passive
women are seen to be incapable of the job (PB, 13.10). A connection was made between older men of certain
cultures and classes holding particularly strong views on women and aggression in leadership. Another participant
described the need for a level of separation between followers and leaders as management must make tough
decisions sometimes, and this was a problem for some women (PI, 8.10).
Leadership was described as being a fine line between assertiveness and aggression, with a suggestion that the use
of authority was needed to handle conflict, which is an area women struggle with in the workplace.
“There is always this fine line where you hear about people being described as aggressive and you think
‘have I been described as aggressive?… I think a key thing for women is actually being very authoritative,
sounding authoritative and I was very fortunate to work with Helen Clark for a period of my life, and one
thing I certainly saw with Helen is that she dealt with people in a very authoritative way, not necessarily
aggressive way, and that’s something I’ve tried to bring through” (PJ, 5.20).
Alongside this comment it was suggested that some women struggled handling men in general, and other women
already in leadership positions undermine women seeking promotion to protect their own roles.
3.3.1.1.Participant Suggested Strategies
Most participants discussed networking as a way of lowering Gender Bias: by learning and sharing how they
influence in relationships, while building rapport and trust by understanding other’s needs which was stated as a
natural feminine trait. Another described their leadership traits as their natural manner allowing them to fit in
without being viewed as aggressive, while understanding how others perceived them (PA, 6.10).
One participant has actively researched leadership styles and developed her own so both her home and work
personalities are congruent (PF, 9.00), where another has found it effective to focus only on issues and not
personalities, when dealing with conflict (PE, 8.06).
One participant stated it is easier to work for an employer who shares similar home commitments , as opposed to a
single minded executive, and also believes a high degree of resilience is needed for success (PA, 6.10).

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The women discussed the use of tactics to disarm male colleagues. These included standing and verbally
acknowledging their dominant behaviour by asking them to sit, or not to allow a man to look down on you in a
meeting. It was recognised that women may have to discuss sports to engage them (PG, 11.13).
One participant had different techniques for managing men and women in meetings, stating that men are more
directive with purposeful conversations, where women are more relaxed and need to be encouraged to participate
which requires more listening. (PC, 6.14)
It was recognised that emotion is an issue for women during conflict, and it was suggested that women don’t allow
men to see them cry in the workplace. The participants advised that a strategy they used when feeling upset was to
elicit a memory or thought that created a positive mood, so they could effectively deal with the situation until they
had privacy (PJ, 5.20).
3.3.2. Double Burden Syndrome
Figure 9 Double Burden Syndrome Awareness
All participants agreed that this is a barrier for women’s career progress with the suggestion that women naturally
feel responsible for the home, as it is her “nest and place of pride” (PG, 17.25). The research supports the notion
that women have an expectation of themselves in this area as much as society does.
“I think that as women it is something we want to do. As much as society expects us to do, but we actually
want to put time into our children” (PC, 4.12).
The Double Burden Syndrome was often discussed in two parts: one being childcare, the second house cleaning and
duties. One participant found only house duties a burden, not childcare, describing the burden as 1.5 rather than
double (PF, 5.12).
Nine participants (82 percent) had significant personal experience of the syndrome, citing “it’s very challenging to do
everything” (PA, 4.48), especially for younger women (see fig 9).
“I think part of the real stress in New Zealand is the younger women, when you may not have the money,
you’ve got young kids, and you’re sleep deprived” (PB, 8.13).
Many participants who experienced the Double Burden Syndrome mentioned the need for flexible childcare and a
need for better institutional childcare arrangements. It was suggested that women’s tendency not to ask for help in
an attempt to “do everything” was part of the issue also (PD, 6.45). Another participant stated that she has a
“tolerance level” for house cleanliness that is higher than her partners, so it is her issue not her partner’s if she is
unhappy about the condition of their home, so therefore her responsibility to fix it (PG, 7.25). Some participants

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stated that even though tasks may be shared between themselves and a partner, they felt they spent more time
thinking and organising home tasks than their partners (PI, 6.13; PJ 3.15).
Of the nine participants who significantly experienced the syndrome, most stated that the burden was heaviest
when the children were young and lessened as they grew, with one describing it as being “a slave to a baby” (PE,
5.47).
Two participants (18 percent) described feeling huge pressure to fulfil motherly duties as well as home duties, with
one stating she often felt guilty for pursuing her career.
“I have the guilt factor quite often… because of what other women say to me” (PK, 4.28)
The same participant noticed that after having a child, perceptions about her changed in the workplace. Her younger
colleagues seemed to hold more traditional views about women’s roles as homemakers, while her more aged peers
were fully supportive of her progression
“I used to work with a group of like‐minded women and what we observed is that the younger women
coming through had much more traditional views of women and women’s roles…..I felt I had great support
from my aged peers, their view was much more women can do anything and have the right to do anything.
There were lots of observation made by people who often didn’t know me as well… with differing views pre
and post child. There was expectations of what I should and shouldn’t do” (PK, 4.28).
Two participants (18 percent) had no personal experience with the syndrome (see fig 9), one stating her husband did
much of the home work, as he worked from home and they have no children (PH, 9.06). The other (PK) has a partner
who has taken on the primary caregiver role allowing her to pursue her career, which was always their agreement.
3.3.2.1.Participant Suggested Strategies
All participants spoke highly of their partners and the support they receive from them, which has enabled them to
reach high positions. The research indicates a correlation between the seniority of women’s positions in an
organisation and the increased home responsibilities of their partners, with some participants stating the choice of a
partner who is 100 percent supportive and willing to share all responsibilities is a critical factor in a woman’s success.
For one participant (PK) it was a decision made with her partner that she maintain her career progression by taking
six months maternity leave, and him taking the primary caregiver role.
Family members were also used to lower the burden, with many using mothers of the couple to care for the children,
and one participant stated, “If you are working fulltime you must have help, it’s not a luxury it’s a necessity” (PD,
6.45). The majority of participants have or have previously had a home cleaner to remove responsibility from
themselves, however it was stated that this and paid child care were only possible if they were affordable.
Access to flexible childcare was stated as an issue by many participants, and one said that some women believe
returning to the workplace can seem pointless if all income made will be spent on child care, however she believes it
is an investment in career progression (PF, 5.47).
Part time and flexible working arrangements were used by the large majority of participants with most of the
women starting with part time employment and building up to full time, and as children grew and there was better
access to childcare. For one participant having a flexible working arrangement was a critical factor for her taking the
position, while others stated that organisations they have worked for lacked the ability or motivation to provide this
as an option..

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Hannah McIntosh ID 12869790 MGT736
3.3.3. Career Breaks
Figure 10 Participants’ Career Breaks
Nine participants (82 percent) took Career Breaks, the majority leaving to have children or travel, with one
participant having children and furthering her education in the same Career Break (PD, 17.47)(see fig 10).
Figure 11 Time spent on a Career Break
The period away from the work force ranged from six months to ten years, with most participants (28 percent)
spending less than a year away from the work force (see fig 11). Responses varied in respect to enjoyment: some felt
it was the best time in their lives; others hated it.

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Figure 12 Participants’ access to favourable returning conditions
When returning to work five participants (45 percent) were able to work part time or use flexible working
arrangements to build up to full time (see fig 12), while one participant was expected to be fully focused on the tasks
the day she returned full time (PK, 15.35). An issue described as the “biggest barrier to career progression” was
childcare (PC, 13.40), with one participant (PC) leaving a profession as it was too demanding with children. It was
stated that “school holidays are a nightmare” (PC, 13.40) and two participants said that New Zealand needs to
improve support and flexibility of institutional child care.
Some participants described their employer as not good at supporting women to return to work, where there is a
perception that working from home with flexible hours means “sitting on the couch watching movies or out having
lunch with your girlfriends” (PA, 11.35). One participant asked to do flexible hours to care for an ill child but was
refused; this led to her changing her employment. Participant (PC) negotiated flexible hours into her current role and
stated if it had not been available to her she would have refused the position (PC, 4.12).
Another described an organisation that allowed women to return one day a week and build up to full time while
being paid maternity pay. This was during a time where there was no legislation supporting maternity pay in
Australia. The organisation found that despite the fact it was not profitable in the short term, they retained most of
their female talent which lowered the recruitment costs by six million (PB, 8.13).
Two participants (18 percent) never took Career Breaks (see fig 11), one does not have children (PH), and the other
chose to return to work two weeks after giving birth. During that time she had taken on a new leadership role, and
she described it as “hell” and does not recommend it to anyone (PB, 25.10).
3.3.3.1.Participant Suggested Strategies
The organisational culture and Chief Executive were suggested to set the tone for how easy it is for women to return
to work, the Chief Executive was described to be trusting in a flexible arrangement towards women’s work (PA,
11.35). One participant encouraged this type of relationship by doing free work while on maternity leave to help the
organisation complete a project, which then lead to a smoother transition between part time and full time work (PF,
16.49).
One participant (PB) has the only part time manager in the organisation, she found that this employee is so grateful
for the flexibility that she works exceedingly hard. While another participant discussed the change in focus from time
spent in an office to outcome based performance assessments (PC, 13.10).
One participant who left the work force for ten years discussed the need to constantly network and remain relevant
in the minds of those who are important. This involved coffee meetings, attending events, and invitations to stay on
people’s ‘radar’. “Never under estimate those people and where they may end up” (PJ, 13.15).

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Nannies and house cleaners were also mentioned by two participants as enabling an easier transition back to work,
and aiding to lower pressure of responsibilities.
3.3.4. Lack of Role Models
Participants were asked which role models or mentors had directly impacted on their career, and from this a clear
definition of these two roles developed. The research revealed that role models are women or men that participants
aspire to be like, are often in equal or higher senior roles, or previous employers or managers. It is an informal
relationship that the role model knows nothing about. These relationships were also used as a measure of learning
what the women did not like, or conversely what they wanted to emulate.
“I think you can always find a role model, they don’t need to know they are your role model, stalk them is
my term, stalk someone and do what they do” (PA, 9.11)
Mentors are a formalised relationship which range from Professional Coach, to casual career advice from a network
of friends, and is a relationship that “actively tests you, and makes sure you’re on the right track to what you want to
achieve” (PD, 13.06).
Figure 13 Mentor and Role Model Use
Ten participants (91 percent) have or had role models and mentors during their career (see fig 13) with varying
degrees of formality; five (50 percent) of which had an informal observation relationship, where the participant
observed behaviour but never openly asked for a formal mentor relationship from the role model (see fig 14).
Figure 14 Nature of Mentoring Relationship
Four of the participants (40 percent) had male mentors (see fig 15), with another participant currently trying to build
a mentoring relationship with her new male employer (PF, 12.00); this gives an equal split of participants with male
or female mentors.

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Figure 15 Gender of Participants’ Mentors
It was suggested that it was the “right people” that were needed for mentoring roles, irregardless of their gender.
“A lack of available mentors or role models certainly makes it harder for women. I’m always torn with that
because actually I think that it doesn’t matter in some ways, do you actually need to have women in those
positions, or do you just need to have people in those positions encouraging of a range of skills and talent
and diversity, and a difference of thought” (PC, 9.35).
It was thought that “only valuing one school of thought has held back women’s participation,” (PC, 9.35), and that it
was difficult in male‐dominated industries to find a role model that allowed the participant to visualise themselves in
a senior role (PC, 9.35). Another participant stated she struggles in a work environment that has no females in senior
roles (PF, 12.00).
It was suggested that women, unlike men, don’t naturally seek mentors. This may be because to do this, they must
open up their vulnerabilities, and focus on weaknesses rather than growth and development (PD, 13.06)
. In addition,
there may be an element of fear of rejection when seeking a formal mentoring relationship (PD, 13.06)
.
One participant disagreed with the secondary research believing that women do naturally seek mentors; but for
different purposes. Men focus on career progress; women are more interested in personal strategies for a balanced
life (PE, 12.02). The nature of the mentoring relationship for women is learning and “testing out do I want to be like
you” (PE, 12.02): this was supported by another participant who said she wants to follow a mentor she can enjoy and
learn from, and who can assist her in lowering negative stress at work. Currently in a new role, she stated that she
took the position half for the role, and half for the Chief Executive who would lead her.
“I want to be led by some who I can get some enjoyment and learning from working with them…As a women
with a family I want to decrease my stress level at work, I want to increase the stress in a positive way in a
stretch way not thrown into an environment with somebody who is going to be very difficult to work for” (PF,
12.00).
Only one participant never used a role model, or mentor relationship, as she stated she has never felt she needed
one, and has also never had a female employer, therefore any advice she did need she would ask a male who she
had worked closely with (PI, 11.28).
3.3.4.1.Participant Suggested Strategies
One participant has had a Professional Coach for the past 14 years who has assisted her in two of three career
changes. “Having someone as a sounding board in a paid capacity is different to a formal mentoring relationship but
I would recommend it to everyone” (PK, 11.55).

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Another participant stated that during you career there will be individuals that will never see you as having the
potential to advance, and to overcome this you must find a way around them or move on, and likened it to banging
your head against a brick wall (PG, 15.25).
A career anchor was discussed to be an understanding of what is most important to achieve in your career, setting
the tone for future decisions and the type of mentor to seek (PB, 19.25). Mentors needed to be able to connect with
the participant, be trustworthy, and have a relationship focused on career progression similar to men (PA, 9.11).
There was recognition that leadership styles are changing with leaders aged in their 30’s which has affected
inspiration for both men and women as nothing seems unachievable (PC, 9.35).
3.3.5. Old Boys’ Network
Participants were asked what socialising they had done throughout their careers with men to enhance their
opportunities. There was a variety of answers ranging from very little to no socialising, one saying it was not
enjoyable to try talk to men who did not want to talk to you (PK, 17.37), and another said “professional networking
is a low priority when it’s difficult to maintain a network of friends and family” (PF, 19.46). Another participant said
that women traditionally use socialising as a way to renew and support themselves in their everyday life, not to
further career progression (PF, 19.46).
One participant joined The Rotary Club with the purpose of working alongside men to help the community and build
her networks; stating she tried but did not enjoy attending rugby and sports bars and instead found the importance
of being true to yourself (PB, 27.20).
Figure 16 Belief in the Old Boys’ Network
Recognition of an Old Boys’ Network came from eight of the participants (73 percent), with two (18 percent)
suggesting that it was in fact a business network of people who know and trust each other, and that men “had
longer in business traditionally to form relationships”(PC, 16.33), which just a function of business. One participant
(9 percent) stated the there is also an Old Girls’ Network, that encourages and promotes women over men (PE,
17.00) (see fig 16).
The focus of the answers provided, centred on networking and the need for male‐dominated industries’ networks to
be “broken and entered” into by women (PE, 17.00), despite taboos creating the perception that “it’s difficult to
crack” (PD, 20.25). Networking was described as being able to engage with people confidently so they feel they can
trust you, however it was mentioned that women should be careful when seeking networking as perceptions may
form about something “untoward happening” (PB, 27.20).

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Figure 17 Socialising done with Men to enhance Career Progression
Six participants (54 percent) actively socialised with men to enhance career opportunities with one (9 percent)
spending the majority of her time with men (PI, 16.43) (see fig 17). This included lunches, coffees, and after work
drinks, it was mentioned that women prefer their partners to attend significant social occasions, especially key
events or dinners. One participant networked solely due to the requirements of her employment to be seen at
industry and community events (PH, 23.41).
Integrity and reputation were highlighted as issues to consider when socialising with men, with the participants
asserting that you can be part of the activity but it is not necessary to “behave like the boys” (PJ, 16.10).
“The biggest thing you have in life is your reputation and you know particularly the higher up you go and for
a female it is particularly important that you really keep that integrity” (PJ, 16.10).
“Like promotes like” (PI, 16.43) was highlighted by a participant as an issue and explanation of the Old Boys’ Network,
but the research found it was also connected to ethnicity as well as gender suggesting an Old Girls’ network.
One participant highlighted the fact that women do themselves no favours by not having lunch with people they do
not like (PI, 16.43): this was in the context of limiting opportunities based on dislike for another person.
3.3.5.1.Participant Suggested Strategies
Joining networking clubs of any kind was advised by many participants, and suggestions included Rotary, Institute of
Directors in New Zealand, Global Women, and the Wellington Club. Identifying and entering industry relevant
networks was highlighted to be important, as was attending key events in the industry to become familiar with the
influencers, be visible and self‐promote to them (PJ, 16.10).
Developing professional networks and relationships with younger employees will assist in future networking as they
move throughout different industries (PC, 16.33), was said to strengthen long term networks. While maintaining
relationships with students women studied with was also a foundation for professional networks (PF, 19.46), in the
current moment.
Knowing who in the industry has power and influence was suggested to build networks, and understanding who
needs to know who you are. It may be as simple as finding out what the bosses’ hobbies are and bringing them up
(PD, 20.25).
Higher rigour in recruitment processes was suggested to be lowering the Old Boys’ Network also, where men in their
50’s are now actively looking to employ a diverse work force (PA, 14.30).

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3.4. Significant Points
This question asked participants to share what they felt was significant from their experiences, much of what is
discussed in the above questions was mentioned, but the significant answers were as follows.
3.4.1. Personal Comments
The choice of partner is critical; they must support the women 100 percent in her career choices (PA, 17.26).
Childcare is an investment in career progress, “spend ahead of the curve” (PA, 17.26).
“Self‐belief is the limiting belief… it’s not about breaking through the glass ceiling generally it’s about
someone who is already through it breaking it and reaching through to pull you through” (PE, 19.12).
Must be tough and don’t take anything to heart. “I do the best that I can do, I give my all for my job, but it is
a means to an end it’s not the end”. Nobody’s done a job that hasn’t been criticised or made a mistake.
Front up to a mistake, at least you were trying. If you have passion for something “don’t be afraid to put
yourself out there” and “don’t look at rejection as personal, someone will give you the opportunity” (PG,
34.49).
“I don’t feel I have hit the glass ceiling or had obstacles or barriers (PH, 29.10).
“Women tend to under value themselves, don’t be shy to talk about your achievements” (PJ, 17.24), “believe
and promote yourself since no one will do this for you…Find the right leadership style for you” (PK, 23.10),
something you are comfortable with.
3.4.2. Equality Comments
“Find a culture you can flourish in, inclusive and supportive of women”; the Chief Executive often sets the
tone of the culture (PA, 17.26).
New Zealand legislation has provided equal rights for men and women but attitudes still need to changed
towards women’s right to equality, there needs to be a focus on “what’s in it for the other person” (PB,
29.27).
“I believe it is our responsibility to make it easier for the ones that come next”, younger women recognise
being treated equally and need to expand that, and not accept the status quo (PC, 19.45).
“A lot of younger women coming through they think that all of this is done… when you actually look
at some proof points like parity … the distortions of a male salary compared to a females is
significant, so young women who think this is all fixed and done, that’s actually one of our bigger
challenges (PD, 24.17).
There is a need to recognise the difference in leadership in different ethnicities; Maori and Pakeha are both
equally as valid (PC, 19.45).
With five generation in a workplace this posed a huge challenge for leaders; focus needs to change to
tolerance and presence valuing relationships. Communication is essential for employees to understand what
is expected of them and enable good performance, there “needs to be a focus on clarity or purpose and
expectation” (PC, 19.45).
3.4.3. Networking Comments
Technology is enabling women to network better than before, “we should be savvy and smart with that
now” (PF, 22.10).
Contacts are important, “it’s not about a tap on the shoulder because you’re a good bloke, it’s about a
shoulder tap because I know you can do a good job. If they don’t know who you are its ten times harder” (PI,
18.10).

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Hannah McIntosh ID 12869790 MGT736
4. Discussion
This research sought to identify barriers to women seeking leadership in New Zealand and potential strategies to
overcome them. Originally the researcher wondered whether women were aware of these barriers but as primary
research was conducted it became very clear that all the participants were aware. Many had experienced a majority
of the barriers, with the exception of one participant who believe they had not directly been affected by any of the
barriers.
4.1. Participants
Interestingly the participant (PK) who felt they did not experience any career progression barriers was quite different
to all other participants in the fact that she had the lowest senior position as Regional Manager (see fig 2), and was
the only participant with no children. This could be a sample error with this participant not correctly meeting the
criteria of a senior women in New Zealand leadership, or perhaps it is above the regional level that the identified
barriers become more impactful on career progression, as this transition is considered a critical leak in the female
talent pipeline, (Barsh & Yee, 2012). It does provide an interesting insight however into the perception of barriers at
differing levels.
The industry span of the participants could be considered a limitation of the research as it does not include all
industries within New Zealand, however it did reveal some interesting data. Banking and Finance held the highest
number of participant involvement with 32 percent, compared to the national level of women’s participant at senior
level in this industry of 22.92 percent” (Ministry of Women’s Affairs, 2014), this high number was not expected.
Perhaps it is a sampling error of unconscious bias, however participants were chosen on their position, not industry.
New Zealand Public Service was the second highest with 13 percent (see fig 3) of the partipcants involved in the
industry, which compared to the national level of women’s participant at senior level of 24.1 percent (Ministry of
Women’s Affairs, 2014), this industry seemed likely to have more participants. All other industries had one
participant involved which provided a span of eight industries in total. Of these eight Education could be considered
the only female‐dominated profession, (Human Rights Commission, 2012) having been identified by Ministry of
Women’s Affairs (2014) as a gender segregated industry. This low number of participants in gender segregated
industries surprised the researcher; there was an expectation that the sample would have around half the
participants in feminised professions. Again this may be an unconscious sample bias, but it could be argued that the
participant span provides experiences that better highlights the progression barriers.
The age range of the participants also surprised the researcher; none were under 44 years of age with the majority
of participants between 51 ‐60 years (see fig 4). This suggests that women may not reach these senior leadership
roles until middle age, and this may be a symptom of the progression barriers including Career Breaks, Gender Bias,
and the Double Burden Syndrome. This potential symptom was not clearly identified or suggested in secondary
research, so it is acknowledged that again this may be a sampling error however participants were chosen more or
less at random based on their leadership position.
The time spent in one leadership position ranged from one and a half weeks to twelve years, with a relatively even
spread of time (see fig 5). This suggests that women in leadership roles do have longevity but also ability to move
between leadership roles. This question was limited by focusing on only one leadership role, not the length of the
career in leadership.

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Hannah McIntosh ID 12869790 MGT736
4.2. Internal Barriers
4.2.1. Low Confidence
Low Confidence was acknowledge by 55 percent of the participants as being personally experienced, with 36 percent
observing this behaviour in other women (see fig 6), making 91 percent of the participants connected to this barrier.
Many participants discussed Low Confidences impact on the perceived skill level required to apply for a position
being around 90 percent of the job description, which is consistent with Ellis & McCabe’s, (2003) literature.
Furthermore it was recognised by all participants that women tend to under‐value their abilities and hold high
personal standards of themselves consistent with Gov.UK (2011) and Kaiser & Wallace’s (2014) literature, and the
suggestion that Low Confidence is not a barrier, but rather a harsh personal evaluation of their skill set aligns with
this (PK, 1.24). It was stated by a participant that women focus on what they cannot do, and on the down fall of risks
rather than the benefits (PD, 1.06), which the supports Patel, (2013) and Fagenson, (1990) reports, stating risk
aversion behaviour is common in women where they perceive potential loss rather than gain. It is clear that this
barrier has significant impact on an individual’s self perception and this ripples out into a woman’s career progress.
Mahoney’s (2002) research identified that women believed that external events had a significant impact on their
career progression, and although this was not directly identified by the participants however, statements about a
“very male environment” (PK, 1.21), “male‐dominated industry” (PG, 19.19), and “a man’s world” (PB, 6.40)
impacting on personal career progression experiences could be seen to imply this. This external influence was
suggested by one participant to be caused by the mere presence of men, as she observed that some women struggle
to handle men in all situations (PJ, 5.20), which Patel, (2013) identified as an inability to claim authority around men.
Witten‐Cox, (2014) stated that the business environment created by men hinders women’s progression, and this is
identified by participants (PK, PG & PB) through the above statements about male domination. As a result of this
male dominance a participant stated that women often display passive behaviour in business meetings which is a
tendency to wait to comments on issues (PI, 1.49), which could undermine their ability to take authority over men
identified by Patel (2013), and could also undermine their performance in interviews identified by Gov.UK, (2011).
This passive behaviour in meetings (PI, 1.49), and the statement:
“I think I took quite a long time to speak up…I was much quieter than the other graduates because I didn’t
really want to make a mistake, so I think I was much more quiet, I think that took a while to get over” (PA,
1.46).
Appears to prove women lack ability to communicate confidence, but also displays characteristics of stage one of the
EODAA model, where women view speaking up as causing trouble (Rosener, 1995). So despite the participants not
clearly identifying that they believe that external influences directly impact their career, it is easily identifiable in the
responses.
Two participants stated they were aware that the perception of them was aggressive and difficult because they
displayed confidence in a male‐dominated industry (PG, 1.19; PJ 1.06) and this was supported by another
participant’s comment that this reaction could cause Low Confidence (PK, 1.21). Perhaps this is tied to the findings of
Kaiser and Wallace (2014) that show women are greater social risk takers than men, making them appear confident
and disruptive, thus aggressive.
Keeping in mind that self confidence is the “feeling of trust in one’s abilities, qualities, and judgement” (Oxford
University Press, 2014), and that the transition to leadership involves a “fundamental identity shift” (Ibarra, et al.
2013), which could further be hindered by a woman’s high personal standards and harsh personal judgement, this is
a challenging barrier to overcome. As suggested by Rosener (1990) natural leadership behaviours are a symptom of
socialisation, and supporting this was the single participant who had not personally experienced Low Confidence
stating they we raised to “stand by what you believe is true” (PG, 4.45).
Participants encouraged women to apply for any job they wish even if they do not feel capable, and to utilise
mentors and coaches with networking circles to increase opportunities (PB, 3.50). These solutions are focused on
women putting themselves out in the world and taking risks. The majority of the participants stated that women
must believe in themselves and their abilities, which the researcher believes is easy to say, but perhaps much more
difficult to put into practice when aspiring to their first leadership position.

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Hannah McIntosh ID 12869790 MGT736
4.2.2. Imposter Syndrome
It was found that 82 percent (see fig 7) of the participants had experienced Imposter Syndrome, with particularly
strong experiences when beginning new employment or receiving rewards ‐ this is in line with the secondary
research where women feel their achievements and skills are undeserving, (Sakulku & James, 2011, p. 73; Sandberg
& Scovell, 2013, p. 49). This percentage is also above the global average of 70 percent (Sakulku & James, 2011, p. 73).
Two participants openly claimed their success was due to luck which was identified by Clance & Imes (1978 p. 2) or
“being in the right place at the right time” (PH, 3.48) and this is strong evidence of Imposter Syndrome’s effect on
women’s perception of personal achievement.
Sakulku & James, (2011) suggested that this syndrome is caused by perfectionism and being perceived as socially
inept as a child in another sibling’s shadow, but this was not mentioned by any participants. One participant stated
that this feeling was perhaps caused by a mismatch between the internal story of the women and her own harsh
personal standards, compared to the external success story of the organisation or award the woman was receiving
(PE, 3.14). Only one participant did not agree with the concept of Imposter Syndrome, stating instead they saw Low
Confidence in women (PK, 3.33), and another stated that it may be caused more by age and experience rather than
gender (PC, 2.45), or an “alien feeling in a man’s world” (PB, 6.40). As Low Confidence could be seen as a symptom of
Imposter Syndrome, the researcher recognises that all offered explanations are valid, and perhaps tied very closely
to each other, as they all appear to be connected to a negative perception of themselves.
Interestingly the same participant (PG) who did not experience Low Confidence personally also did not experience
Imposter Syndrome. Again this was explained to be attributed to her upbringing, which supports Rosener’s (1990)
evidence about the effect of socialisation. Perhaps this resilient self confidence is a strong factor in her success, and
can provide a future strategy for the next generation of leaders.
The majority of participants mentioned networks of friends or support where they discussed Imposter Syndrome
symptoms as they all felt similar, but this communication strategy was not found in the secondary research. The
researcher wonders whether these networks may partially fuel Imposter Syndrome, if indeed these communications
are focused in on the feeling of not belonging due to ‘luck’, and not the fact that the women are deserving of their
positions and awards. Joking and teasing was mentioned by a participant as a way the syndrome was discussed, and
perhaps this is not an effective way of overcoming the syndrome, as it is not therefore acknowledged as a serious
barrier for career progression.
It was suggested by a participant to “fake it till you make it” (PD, 3.26), which implies pretending you belong in an
organisation until you feel you have achieved enough to feel worthy of being there. Many other participants stated
self belief was something women lack, and there needs to be a change to focus on optimism and how their skills and
experience can translate into different roles (PF, 3.04). These strategies all involve a mentality shift for women,
which is challenged by harsh self‐imposed standards.
4.3.External Barriers
4.3.1. Gender Bias
All participants agreed that a common perception of women in leadership roles were seen to be aggressive; this was
attributed to the gender biased expectations about women’s roles are in society. This aligned with Ibarra, et al.’s
(2013) definition of Gender Bias, also referred to as Second generation Bias (Patel, 2013 ) and the Glass Ceiling
(Jakobsh, 2004), “which is the powerful and invisible barriers created by cultural assumptions and organizational
structures, practices, and patterns of interaction that inadvertently benefit men while putting women at a
disadvantage” (Ibarra, et al. 2013, p. 6). One participant described leadership as a “fine line” (PJ, 5.20) where she
was unsure if she was seen as aggressive but actively used authority as a foundation for leading. So it appears there
is an awareness of this perception, and some women are actively attempting to avoid it.

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Hannah McIntosh ID 12869790 MGT736
This barrier was identified by Sanderson‐Gammon (2013) as the primary barrier for women’s progression based on
its silent and pervasive nature, yet this was not put forward by any participant. There was also no mention of
opportunities lost based on assumptions of others influenced by Gender Bias, which was identified by Barsh & Yee,
(2012). Perhaps it could be the opposite in the case of one participant (PB) who began a new leadership role only
two weeks after giving birth. A very similar example was given by Barsh & Yee (2012), where a woman lost an
opportunity for promotion: it was assumed she did not want it because she was pregnant and almost full term. The
participant’s experience of dedication to a career also conflicts with Patel’s (2013); Sanderson‐Gammon’s (2013)
findings that there is an assumption that women are less ambitious and less committed to a career because of
conflicting home priorities.
It appears that either the participants were not aware of any disadvantage caused by Gender Bias, which is
suggested by Ibarra, et al. (2013) and Price Waterhouse Cooper (2008) because it is an unconscious act and it is
fashionable to be ‘gender blind’ in organisation, or those participants have not been disadvantaged by Gender Bias
in their career progression, perhaps due to specific choices, and relationships built with employers. The first
explanation seems more likely, however with no supporting evidence the researcher can only assume. This lack of
evidence towards disadvantage could suggest that organisations the participants have been involved with are at
stage five of the EODAA model, where all processes are gender blind, and objectives are for the betterment of
everyone (Rosener, 1995).
Sanderson‐Gammon (2013) stated that Gender Bias was fuelled by a dominance of male values in the work
environment, and this created a leadership paradigm of masculine traits. This also is found in Jakobsh’s (2004)
research suggesting the Western patriarchal society creates a bias that men are more powerful than women,
therefore making them more suitable for leadership. There was a particular focus on the differing traits held by each
gender in the literature, with women described as caring, friendly, and selfless, (Patel, 2013, p. 20; Rosener, 1990 p.
122). The participants were asked if they had different personally traits at work compared to the home, which could
be assumed would be a more natural state, 27 percent did not believe they were different but had been told by their
partners to stop behaving in a working manner. This implies that the respondents displayed different personality
traits between these two environments, with the remaining 63 percent claiming they used the same personality
both at work and at home. Interestingly, participants stated they carried over traits to both environments and these
included caring (PD, 10.04), planning, and action orientation (PC, 6.14). One participant had been actively developing
her leadership style to be congruent in both environments, as she “wants to bring who I am to work” (PF, 9.00).
The double bind was identified by Kaiser & Wallace (2014) and Sandberg & Scovell (2013), as a choice between being
like, or seen as capable to fill a leadership role. This was supported by Patel (2013), Ibarra, et al. (2013) and Sandberg
& Scovell (2013) who asserted that women are either perceived as aggressive, capable and disliked; or passive,
incapable and liked. This is caused by Gender Bias expectations of women and the conflicting paradigm of leadership
(Fagenson, 1990). Participant (PB) agreed with this, stating the bias around female leaders has been described as a
“double standard” as assertive women are seen to be aggressive, and passive women are seen to be incapable for
the job (PB, 13.10). It was also suggested that women must display masculine traits to be successful in leadership;
this was supported by Sanderson‐Gammon’s (2013) findings about Public Service Organisational culture being
complicit in nurturing only masculine leadership styles. Participants agreed that during their careers they had
observed this behaviour in female leadership, and one participant (PJ) had avoided further progression in fear of
having to behave in a masculine, and therefore unnatural manner which she felt went against her values. Another
described leadership as having the need “to put on a mask to be taken seriously” (PB, 13.10). So despite 63 percent
claiming that their personalities are the same in both work and home environments, they had all observed masculine
behaviour in others, and perhaps have been unwittingly forced to adapt personality traits from pressure of an
organisational culture informed by gender bias.
There appears to be evidence from both primary and secondary sources of the bias women hold against each other,
and Kaiser & Wallace’s (2014) research found that women were much harsher on themselves and other women,
than men were. This was supported by a statement from participant (PK, 17.19) who said that it appears younger
women coming into the workforce hold more traditional views of women’s roles, compared to her older peers who
support a ‘women can do anything’ attitude. She also stated she felt the workplace perception of her changed after
having a child, which she attributed to gender biased judgements based on the conflicting roles of career and
motherhood. “I have the guilt factor quite often… because of what other women say to me” (PK, 4.28).

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Hannah McIntosh ID 12869790 MGT736
Another participant addressed the concept that women are harsh on each other, stating it disturbs her to see
women in high leadership roles protecting their patch and not assisting other women (PJ, 5.20). Perhaps it is women
holding these traditional views, or a fear of losing what they have achieved that restricts the progress of women as a
whole. It could be assumed that this defensive behaviour in men is more acceptable based on their Gender Bias roles
in society as providers and protecters. The researcher found this to be an interesting contrast.
Sexism was only mentioned by one participant (PB) in passing comment; but as there was no focus on sexism caused
by Gender Bias in the research questions this is a limitation of the research. However the researcher does find it
interesting that it was only mentioned by one participant, and it loosely connects to the findings of Sanderson‐
Gammon (2013) stating that sexism was only seen as an issue for half of the interview organisations as it is not
mentioned, or complained about.
Networking and relationship building was discussed as a way to handle the issue of Gender Bias, with a focus on
learning about personal influence and understanding other’s needs. One participant discussed how her own
personality traits are a strength that allow her to influence others and better understand their perception. Other
strategies came forward about focusing on issues over personalities (PE, 8.06), selection of the right employers (PA,
6.10), and an exercise to handle emotions (PJ, 5.20).
On a more tactical level one participant stated she used more direct purposeful conversation when dealing with men,
but with women she saw her role as more of a facilitator with a relationship building focus (PC, 6.14). Another
participant described actively disarming men by standing and inviting them to sit if he wished to discuss something,
this acknowledged the dominant behaviour of the man, and stopped him from looking down on her, and holding a
perception of power. (PG, 11.13). This provided an interesting insight into how women chose to behave around men,
these participants were two from the 27 percent who had a difference in their behaviour acknowledged.
4.3.2. Double Burden Syndrome
All participants agreed that the Double Burden Syndrome was a career barrier for women, with 82 percent having
personally experienced it. The data from both primary and secondary sources aligned, with a participant stating that
women naturally feel responsible for the home, as it is her “nest and place of pride” (PG, 17.25), and it was
suggested that in their attempt to do everything women tended not to ask for help which also became part of the
issue (PD, 6.45). It was stated that there is an expectation from both society and the women themselves to fulfil the
homemaker role. This expectation could be explained by Fagenson’s (1990) research which states that women are
conditioned from an early age to put high importance on family well‐being, and this is supported by the socialisation
concept from Rosener (1990). Rosener (1990) states that how a child is raised will affect their behaviour, values and
attitudes, so this barrier could be seen as a symptom of Gender Bias.
Brown’s (2010) research participants stated they would all put home duties before work despite the position they
held, and this connects loosely to participant (PF, 5.12) stating that home chores are a burden but caring for children
is not, making it more a 1.5 burden rather than a double burden. So it would be fair to assume that a mother would
put her children’s well‐being before work tasks, which the researcher believes is not unreasonable, but it could be
assumed that a father would do the same. Some participants stated that even though home tasks were shared
between themselves and their partner, they spent more time thinking about and organising home tasks than their
partners (PI, 6.13; PJ 3.15), which suggests that women are committed to the well‐being of the family while away at
work.
Desvaux et al. (2007) asserted that the Double Burden Syndrome is the primary barrier for career progression as
there is no easy solution: one participant supported this stating that “the biggest barrier was childcare”, and “school
holidays is a nightmare” (PC, 13.40). Over 95 percent of Desvaux et al.’s (2007) participants felt being a mother, or of
childbearing age was a disadvantage to them, with one participant highlighting that this is a significant barrier for
young, or solo mothers with low incomes.
“I think part of the real stress in New Zealand is the younger women, when you may not have the money,
you’ve got young kids, and you’re sleep deprived” (PB, 8.13).

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Hannah McIntosh ID 12869790 MGT736
Increased income was a factor that lifted the Double Burden, with all participants at some point in their career
having a paid cleaner, and many using nannies, however as highlighted above not all women have the means to
access the help that would reduce this burden.
It was stated that the burden is the heaviest when children are young, with one participant saying you’re “a slave to
a baby” (PE, 5.47), but this pressure lessened as the child grew. The respondents felt the lack of good institutional
childcare and flexible working hours were a significant contributor to this syndrome in New Zealand, as it limited
womens’ ability to work. The lack of availability of childcare or perception that it is lacking is reflected in Metz’s
(2005) and Barsh & Yee’s (2011); (2012) research stating that there is often discrimination against women with
children as they are not seen as fully committed to employment. This may be a symptom of the Gender Bias.
The research suggested there is a perception that returning to work is pointless, as income is spent on childcare,
however some respondents felt this was “an investment in career progression” (PF, 5.47). This ‘what’s the point’
attitude towards childcare could be stopping the required pressure needed for the government to make changes to
childcare allocations or providing more flexible working arrangements.
These home responsibilities were also seen to change a woman’s career path to a non‐linear trajectory (Metz, 2005,
p. 12), where mothers were hindered by “family responsibilities and work discontinuity” (Metz, 2005, p. 12), and
childless women were hindered by “personality traits and lack of promotion or work opportunity” (Metz, 2005, p.
12). The only childless participant had stated they had not expereinced the Double Burden Syndrome which aligns
with the above statement, but could also explain her lack of promotion, as she had the lowest position of all
particpants.
Only one participant with children reported that she has never experienced the Double Burden Syndrome. This is
because her partner is the primary caregiver of their child, and it had always been their arrangement that she would
pursue her career (PK, 4.28). This highlights a point several participants put forward about the importance of
choosing a partner who will support you career choices. Incidently this is the same participant who felt strong guilt
(in the above section) over pursuing leadership, and also experienced guilt which stemmed from comments she
received from other women in the workplace.
4.3.3. Career Breaks
According to the Ministry of Women’s Affairs (2013) a Career Break is an extended period away from the workforce
with either an on‐going relationship with the employer, or no continuing relationship with the employer. Both of
these Career Breaks were found in the primary research, with 82 percent of the participants (see fig 10) using the
time away to have children, travel or further their educations, a pull factor identified by Cabrera (2007) that draws
women out of the workforce. It could be assumed from the research that the 28 percent (see fig 11) of respondents
who maintained a relationship with their employer were also the participants who returned to work within one year
of leaving. However as this was not a direct interview question it is a limitation to the methodology.
Patel (2013) identified that women are more likely to have a non‐linear career path, as they spend more time on
family commitments. Since 91 percent of the participants have children, and only one (9 percent) did not leave the
work force after giving birth, this is evidence of a non‐linear career path, impacted by the Double Burden Syndrome.
When returning to work it was suggested by Male Champions of Change (2013) that women’s careers plateau
because of an assumption that women are more interested in ‘a job’ than a career, which is a symptom of Gender
Bias. However it is clear from the primary research that the participant’s careers did not plateau as they all obtained
high leadership positions after returning to the work force. This assumption may be an unconscious bias playing out
within the Male Champions of Change organisation, or perhaps some women do only want ‘a job’ when returning to
employment. However it should be a choice of the women, not an assumption made by others.
According to the Ministry of Women’s Affairs (2013) access to flexible working hours is extremely important to
women, and this was supported by one participant who specifically negotiated flexible hours into her new position,
stating that if the role had not allowed for this she would not have taken the job. Another participant was refused
flexible working hours when requesting to care for an ill child, and this lead to her leaving the organisation. It
appears this need for flexibility potentially puts retaining female talent at risk, and organisations that do not suit the

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Hannah McIntosh ID 12869790 MGT736
women’s needs will be less successful in long term retention of these employees. This need for flexibility has led to
employee absenteeism and increased turnover, a symptom of stage two of the EODAA model, which points to a
need for organisations to adapt to accommodate the issues of female employees.
A flexible or part‐time arrangement was described as a ‘career staller’ or ‘career suicide’ by the Ministry of Women’s
Affairs (2013), based on the accepted paradigm of leadership as requiring total commitment to the job to be
considered for promotion (Male Champion of Change, 2013). This negative effect is not apparent in the participant
responses, with one respondent using flexible hours as described above, and another employing a part‐time
manager (PC, 13.10). Enabling of a woman to successful be part time manager and mother is positive future
indicators. Male Champions of Change (2013) stated that although flexible and part‐time hours are being offered to
women, the job designs have not changed to match this, so this could indicate that flexible hours simply means
compressing the same or larger amount of work into a smaller time period.
When returning to employment 45 percent of the participants had access to flexible or part‐time hours, which again
highlighted the need for better access to child care. Described as the ‘biggest barrier’ (PC, 13.40), a participant had
to leave her position in the law profession as the demands of the career became too much whilst raising children.
This is evidence of a need for better childcare and also the impact of the Double Burden Syndrome. Again many
participants mentioned the need for institutional and flexible childcare to improve. This all suggested that the largest
barrier to career progression is a combination of the Double Burden Syndrome and a lack of flexible working hours,
which put extreme pressure on women and hindered their career progression.
The variety of answers about returning to work shows that organisations are not collectively moving up the EODAA
model stages. One participant discussed that on her first day back after a Career Break she was expected to be
focused one hundred percent, and another described the perception of flexible hours from the employer’s
perception as “sitting on the couch watching movies or out having lunch with your girlfriends” (PA, 11.35). These
employer‐employee relationships clearly have low trust and little empathy. On the other side of the scale however a
participant discussed how she assisted in creating maternity leave policies with her previous employer, which
allowed women to return one day a week and gradually build up to full‐time. She stated that it was not profitable in
the short‐term but in the long‐term the organisation retained the majority of its female talent, and saved six million
dollars in recruitment costs (PB, 8.13). Another participant encouraged a positive relationship with her employer by
doing free work for the organisation while on maternity leave to help complete a project, which then lead to an easy
part‐time to full‐time transition (PF, 16.49). So perhaps finding a solution requires flexibility from the employer and
the women, as they both have needs and objectives to meet.
Both the organisational culture and Chief Executive were suggested to set the tone surrounding how easy it is for
women to return to work, and a positive Chief Executive was described as supportive of a flexible working
arrangement (PA, 11.35). This is supported by the concept behind the Male Champions of Change group, who have
dedicated themselves to ensure equity within their organisations. This concept of leading from the front is perhaps a
key element for women‘s career progression.
It was mentioned by a participant that there needs to be a focus on outcome based performance rather than time
spent in an office (PC, 13.10), which the researcher believes is a positive mentality shift. This is supported by Kaiser &
Wallace’s (2014) research which asserts that women are excellent implementers, applying themselves to tasks in
order to achieve what seems impossible.
Networking was discussed by a participant who left the workforce for ten years. She stated the importance of
remaining on peoples radar, and to “never under estimate those people and where they may end up” (PJ, 13.15), so
this indicates that time away does not impact career progression if this strategy is used effectively. Methods
suggested to lighten the Double Burden Syndrome included the use of cleaners and nannies to ease the stress of
transitioning back into the workforce. The key element here seems to be access to help, either from an employer,
government, or external party.

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4.3.4. Lack of Role Models
A clear definition of the distinction between role models and mentors came from both the primary and secondary
sources, with participants describing Role models as people they aspire to be like, and Mentors being a formalised
relationship that “actively tests you, and makes sure you’re on the right track to what you want to achieve” (PD,
13.06). This shows that there is an understanding of what these roles are and how they assist in career progression.
Of the participants 91 percent have used a mentor or role model, with 50 percent of the participants preferring an
informal observation relationship, which was suggested to be because women must open up their vulnerabilities,
this focus on weaknesses rather than growth and development (PD, 13.06). However this fear of appearing weak in a
male‐dominated environment could be holding women back, as they may not be learning important finer details or
may be learning the wrong strategies from mere observation and mimicry. This is highlighted in the following
participant statement:
“I think you can always find a role model, they don’t need to know they are your role model, stalk them is
my term, stalk someone and do what they do” (PA, 9.11)
Fitzpatrick’s (2011) research identified that women felt a Lack of Role Models was a barrier for progression, and also
identified that unlike men, women don’t naturally seek mentors for career progression (Ibarra, et al. 2013). This was
supported by one participant who reported struggling to work in an organisation with no female leaders (PF, 12.00),
and her statement that a lack of visible female executives makes it difficult for women to visualise themselves in the
role (PC, 9.35). Perhaps this struggle is connected to the findings of Sanderson‐Gammon (2013) which put forward
that leadership and organisational culture only nurture a masculine style. Price Waterhouse Cooper’s (2008) findings
add to this stating that the absence of females in top positions gives the impression that it is an undesirable place for
women or that opportunites are very limited. It appears that the public face of women’s leadership lowers its
attractiveness, and if an organisation is not seen to encourage senior level participation women reject it.
The findings from Sanderson‐Gammon’s (2013) research found that women felt masculine leadership was
potentially the only way to lead, and that female leaders who displayed these traits could not connect with aspiring
women as it did not feel authentic. This was not mentioned by any of the participants, in fact 40 percent (see fig 15)
had a male mentor, with one actively seeking to build a relationship with a new male employer (PF, 12.00). It was
suggested that it was “only valuing one school of thought has held back women’s participation,” (PC, 9.35), and that
it is more about the quality of leadership than gender.
“A lack of available mentors or role models certainly makes it harder for women. I’m always torn with that
because actually I think that it doesn’t matter in some ways, do you actually need to have women in those
positions, or do you just need to have people in those positions encouraging of a range of skills and talent
and diversity, and a difference of thought” (PC, 9.35).
Interestingly participant (PF) who is seeking her first male mentoring relationship with her new employer, stated her
decision to accept the posisiton was half influenced because he was the Chief Executive, and this supports Ellis &
McCabe’s (2003) book where Annette Dixon recommends people choose a boss over the actual position. This shows
there is an awareness of how leaders themselves influence career progression.
One participant felt that women sought mentors on a personal level to better balance work and life demands, the
nature of the relationship being about “testing out whether I want to be like you” (PE, 12.02), and this was also
supported by participant (PF) who sought mentors she enjoyed, and who could help her lower negative stress at
work. This is perhaps evidence of women seeking a better work life balance through mentors, and there appears to
be no resistance to male mentors or their way of leading, which is positive considering the issues around visible
female leaders described above.
The one participant (9 percent) who never used a mentor or role model, felt she never needed one and sought
advice from men when needed, providing evidence of a shifting of thought away from ‘male dominance’.
Participants used a variety of solutions for mentoring and role model issues. These included a professional coach (PK,
11.55), use of a career anchor (Schein, 1990) to assist in choosing a mentor, and choosing a mentor with the same
career trajectory. Above all it was emphasised that it must be a relationship of trust, with a focus on progression (PA,

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9.11). This is important considering the often informal nature of these relationships, and women’s fear of exposing
vulnerabilites.
Finally one participant stated she believed there was a time when employees will never be seen as suitable for
progression by an executive, and in this case to find a way around them or leave the organisation (PK). This appears
to also be caused by ingrained Gender Bias beliefs of executives.
4.3.5. Old Boys’ Network
The concept of the Old Boys’ Network which is men promoting each other through a long term relationship of
friendship, similar education and interests
(Jakobsh, 2004), was agreed to exist by 73 percent of the participants,
with one participant stating “like promotes like” (PI, 16.43); however there were differing opinions of the remaining
27 percent. There was the suggestion from 18 percent of participants that it was in fact business networking not an
exclusive club without women, and that men “had longer in business traditionally to form relationships”(PC, 16.33).
The remaining 9 percent stated that there is in fact an Old Girls’ Network, claiming that they encourage and promote
women over men (PE, 17.00). These responses appear to be inconclusive to the researcher, as there is strong
suggestion of an Old Boys’ Network, however the logic behind the explanation of business networking, and the fact
that men have been doing it longer than women appears to be a valid explanation.
The participants were asked what socialising they did with men to enhance career opportunities, its appears the
responses were either positive or negative. Some participants claimed little to no socialising as it was not enjoyable
to try talk to men who did not want to talk to you (PK, 17.37), to “professional networking is a low priority when it’s
difficult to maintain a network of friends and family” (PF, 19.46), and women traditionally use socialising as a way to
renew and support themselves in their everyday life, not career progression (PF, 19.46). One participant networked
but only due to the professional requirements of her position which necessitated her to be seen at industry and
community events (PH, 23.41). The response about professional networking being low priority is consistent with the
Ministry of Women’s Affairs, (2013) and Sanderson‐Gammon’s (2013) findings, which state that the Double Burden
Syndrome limits women’s ability to network. However, the responses do not show a positive attitude towards
networking, and it is recognised that the perception of socialising with men to enhance career opportunities is not
ideal for some women, The researcher wonders if a negative attitude to networking that focuses on limitations is
encouraging the Old Boys’ Network, or at least restricting women’s access to better networking. Interestingly these
statements seem to support the evidence from Ibarra, et al. (2013) suggesting that like interacts with like, so women
interact with women, which originally was stated that men socialise with men, but perhaps the male exclusive clubs
is not the issue. An excellent reflection of this is a statement from a participant saying women do themselves no
favours by not having lunch with people they do not like (PI, 16.43), and this highlights the fact women may be
limiting themselves by making these personal choices.
Of those participants who had engaged in business socialising with men (54 percent) (see fig 17), methods ranged
from joining clubs including Rotary (PB, 27.20) and the Wellington Club, or attending informal after work occasions.
The attitude of many of these participants was that it was necessary for career progression, with one stating “it’s
difficult to crack” (PD, 20.25), however the implication was that it must be done. Participant (PE) described business
networking as “breaking and entering” into male industry networks because you must be in them. However it was
mentioned that women must be careful when socialising with men for fear of gossip.
“Networking was described as being able to engage with people confidently so they feel they can trust you,
however it was mentioned that women should be careful when seeking networking as perceptions may form
about something “untoward happening” (PB, 27.20).
One participant spent the majority of time with men, as the nature of her industry required, and she did state that at
key events or dinners women commonly invited their partners to attend, where men generally do not (PI, 16.43).
The reason for this is unclear: perhaps it is for support over a long period when networking with men, or to gain
acceptance from men faster.

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There was no mention of a Gender Bias from the participants about men believing that women are not interested in
socialising (Jakobsh, 2004), however it was stated that it is ok to socialise with men but women needed to keep their
integrity, and you cannot “behave like one of the boys” (PJ, 16.10).
“The biggest thing you have in life if your reputation and you know particularly the higher up you go and for
a female it is particularly important that you really keep that integrity” (PJ, 16.10).
Perhaps this importance is due to the fact that women are still gaining stature as leaders, and to act without integrity
is not only damaging to the individual but the collective of women climbing the corporate ladder. The above
response appears to have a differing to tone to the negative responses. The researcher believes that these
participants believe business networking is a necessary task and whether they personally enjoy it or not is relevant.
Perhaps for women to continue their progression they must do things they do not enjoy, but will ultimately deliver
them to better opportunities.
As mentioned above joining clubs and networks was a strategy used by the majority of participants, and attending
key events and being visible for self promotion were mentioned as important (PJ, 16.10). This includes
understanding who the powerful people are in a particular industry and making yourself known to them (PD, 20.25).
One participant stated that developing professional networks and relationships with younger employees will assist in
future networking as they move throughout different industries (PC, 16.33). Maintaining relationships with former
fellow students was also a foundation for professional networks (PF, 19.46). These strategies used by the
participants are all positive, with a focus on putting themselves out in the industry to be known, the researcher
believes that this may be necessary for women since we are currently challenged by poor networks.
It was also stated that higher rigger in recruitment processes was suggested to be lowering the Old Boys’ Network
also, where men in their 50’s are now actively looking to employ a diverse work force (PA, 14.30). So it could be
assumed that there is awareness of issues faced by women in the work place, this suggested some organisations are
at stage three of the EODAA model.

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5. Conclusions
This research aimed to identify known and accepted barriers to New Zealand women seeking leadership. A literature
review was conducted and seven barriers were identified. Two being internal to the women: Low Confidence and
Imposter Syndrome. Five being external to the women: Gender Bias, Double Burden Syndrome, Career Breaks, Lack
of Role Models and the Old Boys’ Network.
After the identification of the barriers, the researcher aimed to identify which barriers New Zealand women had
personally experienced and compare them to the secondary literature findings. It was very clear that all the
participants were aware of the seven barriers, however not all of the participants had experienced every one.
Finally the researcher aimed to identify any strategies the participants used to overcome the seven barriers: a wide
variety of answers were given which shows there is no one path for all women to walk to leadership. The following is
the key findings of each barrier prioritised by importance and impact. Key strategies will discussed below this, with
practical implications for women and organisations using the EODAA model, then finally the future direction of this
research.
.
5.1. Key Findings
5.1.1. Double Burden Syndrome
It is very clear from both primary and secondary sources that women naturally feel responsible for the home, as it is
“her nest and place of pride” (PG, 17.25). Women are naturally conditioned from a young age to put high importance
on family well‐being (Fagenson, 1990), which is the socialisation concept stated by Rosener (1995) and a symptom of
Gender Bias. The key issue for this barrier and also Career Breaks is a lack of flexible and affordable childcare. Many
participants mentioned this struggle, with particular focus on the strain when children are young. It was claimed that
“school holidays are a nightmare” (PC, 13.40), and MCC supports this saying reconciling 12 weeks of school holidays
with only four weeks of leave per year, often requires women to reduced their employment roles (Male Champions
of Change, 2013). Both the primary and secondary data sources provided evidence towards the Double Burden
Syndrome being the primary barrier to women’s career progression (Desvaux et al. 2007); PC, 13.40), and so this was
considered by the researcher to be the first and foremost issue to be addressed. The nature of this barrier is closely
tied with a Gender Bias of societally appropriate roles for women, so a greater understanding and empathy of this
syndrome is required before this burden will lessen.
5.1.2. Gender Bias
This barrier was suggested to be the primary obstacle to career progression by Sanderson‐Gammon (2013) based on
it silent pervasive nature which can undermine efforts to remove it, however little clear evidence in the primary
research suggested this. The researcher believes that this may perhaps be a primary barrier on an unconscious level
where organisations and participants are unaware of its impact (Ibarra, et al. 2013; Price Waterhouse Cooper, 2008).
This is a limitation of the research as the primary research questions did not extend to organisational behaviour, and
focused on individual participant’s behaviour. Both primary and secondary data did agree on the harsh standards
women place on themselves and each other (Kaiser & Wallace, 2014), with younger women holding strong Gender
Bias beliefs (PK, 17.19). Unfortunately the silent engrained nature of this barrier may be too strong to change; rather
it should be acknowledged and understood for what it is. Which is an influence over all other barriers as the beliefs
held by society unconsciously alter business decisions, and they amount of opportunity and assistance women
receive.

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Hannah McIntosh ID 12869790 MGT736
5.1.3. Low Confidence and Imposter Syndrome
This research has found that women hold particularly harsh negative opinions of themselves and their abilities. The
secondary research supported this with Ellis & McCabe’s (2003) comment of a women’s assessment of her skill level
to apply for a position being 90 ‐100 percent of the job description, and this was also put forward by the majority of
participants. Of the participants 91 percent had a connection to the Low Confidence barrier, and the remaining 9
percent who denied its existence still supported this conclusion with the statement claiming that it is a harsh
personal evaluation of skill sets not Low Confidence (PK, 1.24). Similarities between primary and secondary data
sources highlight the negative outlook of women with a focus on down falls and risks which was also suggested by
Patel (2013), and (PD, 1.06). Considering the consistency of the two data sources the researcher believes this is a
significant barrier for women seeking leadership.
It has been recognised that Imposter Syndrome is closely tied with Low Confidence which is why they have been
coupled together as one barrier in this section. Considering this it is logical that a negative personal image is a major
factor in causing Imposter Syndrome. The suggestion that women feel undeserving of positions and awards (Sakulku
& James, 2011), highlights this negative personal image which is supported by 82 percent of participants who had
experienced this syndrome, with many attributing their success to luck. The researcher would like to acknowledge
that evidence may point towards some informal female networks fuelling this syndrome, with many participants
claiming that Imposter Syndrome is a joke between friends, however the true nature of these in‐depth discussions
are unknown to the researcher.
Both these internal barriers are significant obstacles to women seeking leadership, however as they are under the
direct influence of the women, it is possible to minimise or even eliminate these barriers as one participant has
shown (PG).
5.1.4. Career Breaks
Women who chose to take a Career Break are following a non linear career path (Patel, 2013), this absence from the
work force combined with the Gender Bias beliefs held about women, and the pressure of the Double Burden
Syndrome is a moderate barrier to career progression. The key issue here is when women return to the workforce
they face Gender Bias assumptions about their priorities (Male Champions of Change, 2013), and a lack of flexible
working hours (Ministry of Women’s Affairs, 2013) and childcare availability (PC, 13.40). Gender Bias must be
acknowledged and understood, and the Double Burden Syndrome can be minimised, however it is the role of
organisations to better design jobs to accommodate the challenges women face if they wish to retain female talent
and be competitive.
5.1.5. Lack of Role Models
It appears there is a clear understanding of the purpose of role models and mentors as the definitions from both
data sources match, (PD, 13.06, PA, 9.11; Oxford University Press, 2014; Jakobsh, 2004). The key issue is the
hesitation women hold about seeking a mentor, which was stated by one participant as a fear of opening up
vulnerabilities which creates a focus on weakness, rather than growth and development (PD, 13.06). This is
connected to Low Confidence and could be minimised by changes to masculine organisational cultures. A highlighted
issue was that it’s not that women are not in leadership positions, it is “valuing only one school of thought that’s
held back women’s participation” (PC, 9.35). So leaders now need to focus on encouraging skills, talent and diversity
(PC, 9.35). This barrier is only moderate in comparison as there are quite straight forward solutions to this issue.
5.1.6. Old Boys’ Network
The variety of responses given all point towards networking as the core answer, whether it be Old Boys’, Old Girls
(PE, 17.00), or just business networking. This relationship is about engaging people confidently so they feel they can
trust you (PB, 27.20), and one participant stated “like promotes like” (PI, 16.43) within the context of gender and

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ethnicity. However if the researcher could change this context to fondness, then this could be an explanation to the
Old Boys’ and Old Girls’ Networks. The key issue is women’s attitudes towards networking, or rather socialising with
men and others they potentially don’t like. Ministry of Women’s Affairs (2013) and Sanderson–Gammon (2013) both
state that networking can be restricted by the Double Burden Syndrome women carry, which was supported by (PF,
19.46) who said that professional networking is of low priority when it is already difficult to maintain friends and
family. However the researcher believes that if this is a fundamental of business success, then it should be made a
priority, and female attitudes need to change. Laying blame on a men’s exclusive network could be perceived as
choosing not to try. Women need to be positive and proactive to socialise and network with all business contacts,
even if that begins with a small formal female network like a “Lean in Circle” (Sandberg, 2014). This is a moderate
barrier which can be overcome with patience and effort on the behalf of women.
5.2. Strategies
Key strategies have been written in order of priority based on the above barriers and their impact on career
progression.
1) Investing in childcare
It could be argued that if more families are using childcare, it will provide a clear signal to the market and
government that this is an essential service that requires investment and flexibility. Participant (PF) highlighted that
fact that women often don’t return to the workforce as the income earned would all go in childcare fees. However it
should be seen as an investment in career progression (PF, 5.47), and could strike up market development from
effective demand.
2) Choose your partner wisely
The choice of life partner was stated to have vast impact on career progression for women, as they can either help or
hinder the pressure of the Double Burden Syndrome. All participants acknowledge their 100 percent supportive
partners as a factor to their success, with one participant (PK) not experiencing the barrier at all because her partner
has taken on the primary caregiver role for their child.
3) Build and understand your industry network
A focus on building rapport and trust needs to be developed with a positive attitude towards all people despite
personal opinion. A woman needs to understand what personality traits she holds that helps her nurture trust and
respect within her network, and recognise the traits belonging to the powerful people in her industry. This
understanding of personal power can then be extended out into the work place to better influence people, and with
the use of position and authority women can better side step the perception of aggression. Networking will also
assist women in gaining roles they would not consider achievable through external perception and promotion of
their ability, and this can open opportunities that can shorten Career Breaks, and break down the perception of the
Old Boys’ Network exclusivity.
4) Choose a positive outlook
A change in focus on what women are capable of, what achievements they have, and the fact that they are
deserving of every compliment, award and position they obtain. This should extend outwards to applying for
positions and will most likely require the women to pretend this is the right way until it becomes more comfortable,
another wise known as “fake it till you make it” (PD, 3.26). Support is needed for this also with women’s networks,
friends and family all sending the same message of positivity. Participant (PG) never experienced Low Confidence or
Imposter Syndrome claiming her positive upbringing did not allow her to be negative or self limiting, this is hopefully
evidence for the next generation of female leaders, if we can raise them in a positive encouraging way.

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Hannah McIntosh ID 12869790 MGT736
5) Pick and choose your employer
The tone the Chief Executive sets in the organisational culture will vastly shape the types of barriers a women faces
when seeking leadership. Women need to work for employers who are accommodating to their challenges with
flexible working arrangements, and diversity recruitment policies. If your organisations does not assist you in
lowering pressure, and has the expectation that work comes before family you must leave, and give feedback as to
why. If there is a growing trend of women migrating to enabling organisations this may spark new growth and
development in job designs better suited for flexible hours. At the very least these inhibiting organisations will
recognise the growing competitive advantage in enabling organisations through retaining high quality female talent.
6) Outsource tasks
The pressure women suffer through with the Double Burden and Career Breaks is fuelled by Gender Bias beliefs,
although these bias will take time to correct women can still lighten their task load now. Outsourcing house cleaning
was used by all participants at some point in their career, and the use of nannies when first returning back to work
to fill those childcare gaps. This can reduce stress, and fuel market development for better services to lighten the
Double Burden as discussed above.
7) Find a mentor
This formal relationship needs to be focused on career progression, so women must be brave to actively establish
and maintain this relationship. Mentors can span from a work colleague to a Professional Coach. The key is for
women to open up to their weaknesses and actively seek assistance in developing and strengthen these skills. It may
be that the very first skill developed is the trust in the formal relationship to open up to their weaknesses.
5.3. Practical Implications
The EODAA model is a scale of awareness and action based on diversity, for this research it has been applied to
women in the work place the same as Rosener’s (1995) application. However going beyond Rosener (1995) the
researcher has applied this to both the Organisational and individual levels, as it seems applicable and able to prove
good insight to the current environment women are facing. The following section is divided into two sections, the
findings for women on the individual level, and the findings for the organisational level.
5.3.1. Women’s evolution level of awareness and action
Stage one of the EODAA model is where women are view as an issue to be managed and only legislation is adhered
too. The primary research found evidence of stage one in participant’s responses about a lack of ability to
communicate confidence. They stated women are said to display passive behaviour, and wait to speak up in
meetings (PI, 1.49), also the comment of not speaking up in fear of making a mistake during the early stages of (PA)’s
career shows an avoidance of potential confrontation, and perhaps viewing their presence and opinion as an issue
for others.
The evidence from Kaiser & Wallace (2014) stating women judge other women harsher than men, is supported by
the primary findings on younger women holding more traditional Gender Bias beliefs of women’s roles could be seen
as stage two symptoms. There is awareness of barriers, but little is done beyond legislative requirement, and there is
an assumption that capable qualified women will advance at their own rate, Rosener (1995).
Interestingly Ibarra et al. (2013) statement acknowledging that for women to take on leadership roles requires a
fundamental identity shift of entitlement and equality implies that women need stage four of the model. This is
where executive commitment is gained and the focus changes to social justice as well as competitive advantage,

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(Rosener, 1995). In all below stages women either cannot access the leadership roles through lack of opportunity
(stage one and two), or the use of masculine traits to obtain leadership (stage three) leads to unauthentic behaviour.
From the evidence in this research it appears women’s behaviours remains in the lower half of the model, which
restricts the collective female movement progressing forwards. It is recommended that women apply the strategies
above to encourage development into higher stages of the model.
5.3.2. Organisational evolution level of awareness and action
Stage two is awareness of barriers women face but little action beyond legislative requirements is done, this stage
has the largest amount of evidence in this research.
Secondary literature on the Double Burden Syndrome identifies assumptions made about women and their ability to
handle all tasks in the home and workplace, (Barsh & Yee, (2011); (2012), which leads to lost opportunities. The
evidence in the primary research to support this is participant’s employers’ refusal to provide flexible working hours
to help the women manage the pressure of the tasks (see fig 12). The paradigm of leadership itself is a symptom of
stage two, where there is an assumption that leadership is only masculine, and this is fuelled by dominant male
values, (Sanderson‐Gammon, 2013). The critical leaky in the talent pipeline from middle to executive management
comes from voluntary termination of employment by women, (Barsh & Yee, 2012). This is one of the main causes of
the leaky, and matches the high turnover in female employees which occurs at stage two. All this evidence shows an
awareness of barriers but little action is taken by organisations.
Interestingly there was in a statement by Price Waterhouse Cooper (2008) stating that organisations are expected to
be gender blind during business activities. This is supported by a lack of awareness or perhaps acknowledgement of
Gender Bias behaviour (Ibarra et al. 2013), as it is assumed that it is not a conscious deliberate action (Price
Waterhouse Cooper, 2008). So society expects stage five of the model in the business environment, but it appears
from this research that organisations are around stage two. As this research focused primarily on individual
behaviour this is an assumption from the limited evidence. It is clear that a light needs to be shone upon this
disparity, gender blindness may be fashionable but it is unrealistic considering the unconscious Gender Bias society
currently suffers from.
1.1. Limitations
The sample is recognised as a major limitation of the research as a sample of eleven is unlikely to be reflective of the
population of New Zealand women in leadership, and the spread of their roles could have limited the experiences
and answers given. The industries the participants were involved in could be consider more masculine than feminine
making this perhaps more insightful to progression barriers, but not reflective of the working population and gender
segregation of the industries. The age of the participants was also limited to middle to late life stages, so the lack of
younger women does not provide a full scope of responses. As on participant was not truly in a senior leadership
role the sample should be N=10, however this participant provided an excellent contrast from middle to senior
management barrier experiences.
Time for conducting this research was a major limitation, the small 15 week window did not allow for a long time to
digest and analyse the data gathered. This time frame also effected the sample size selections and inhibited the
ability for the researcher to return to the participants to extend responses in an in‐depth interview method.
Access to resources when conducting secondary research is another major limitation to the accuracy of the
researcher. The limited databases meant that some reports and articles were inaccessible to the researcher. In an
ideal world there would be access to all the larger databases allowing for better accuracy and validity of the
conclusions.

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1.2. Future Research
The researcher hopes to further this research in the following areas
In‐depth interviews of the leadership barriers with a “Hermann’s Whole Brain Model” (Daft, 2005, p. 142), to
measure personality differences and their affected on experienced barriers. The researcher believes that
some barriers not experienced by participants were caused by personality and socialisation.
Identifying what a female leader exactly is, this would involve identifying common traits, most likely from
female‐dominated industries, (Ministry of Women’s Affairs, 2014) then consider their implication if moved
to a male‐dominated industry. This may provide an action plan for finding gender in these segregated
sectors.
Identifying what masculine leadership is in women, this was not included in the research due to the scope
restrictions. This may present the best traits to use from both male and female preferred leadership styles.
The range of ages women reach senior leadership roles, with a focus on the youngest, the researcher
wonders if it takes until middle age for women to reach these positions, as the sample were all above 43
years of age.
Investigation into organisational behaviour to more clearly identify what stages most organisations in New
Zealand currently sit at in the EODAA model. This could provide better policies and change models to
encourage female participation at a senior level.
Investigation into organisational behaviour to more clearly identify what stages most organisations in New
Zealand currently sit at in the EODAA model. This could provide better policies and change models to
encourage female participation at a senior level.

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Daft, R. L. (2005).
The Leadership Experience (Vol. Third Edition). Thomson South‐ Western.
Desvaux, G., Deillard‐Hoellinger, S., & Baumgarten, P. (2007).
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Perfomance Driver.
McKinsey and Company Inc.
Devillard, S., Sancier, S., Werner, C., Maller, I., & Kossoff, C. (2013).
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Management: Moving Corporate Culture, Moving Boundaries.
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Approaches and Their Biases.
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boards.pdf
Grant Thornton. (2012).
GRANT THORNTON INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS REPORT ‐ Women in senior management: still
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Guuria, A. (2012).
All on Board for Gender Equality. OCED. OCED Secretary General Gender Reports launch. Retrieved
from http://www.oecd.org/about/secretary‐general/allonboardforgenderequality.htm
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©New Zealand Human Rights Commission . Retrieved from ISBN No 978‐ 0‐478‐35638‐0 (PDF)
Ibarra, H., Ely, R., & Kolb, D. (2013, September). Women Rising: The Unseen Barriers.
Harvard Business Review, 1‐8.
Retrieved from Reprint No: hbr reprint R1309c
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Annual Report. Retrieved from www.iod.org.nz
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Encyclopedia of Leadership, 77 ‐ 81.
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Accelerating the advancement of women in leadership: Listening, Learning,
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Commonwealth Secretariat, Social Transformation Programmes Division.
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Hannah McIntosh ID 12869790 MGT736
Sakulku, J., & James, A. (2011). The Impostor Phenomenon.
International Journal of Behavioral Science, 6(1), 73‐92.
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Random House, Inc.
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boss/tabid/423/articleID/216183/Default.aspx

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Hannah McIntosh ID 12869790 MGT736
3. Appendices
3.1. Appendix One: Participant Information Sheet
APPLIED BUSINESS SCHOOL
15 August 2014
MGT736 ADVANCED APPLIED MANAGEMENT RESEARCH:
PARTICIPANT INFORMATION SHEET
As a Bachelor of Commerce student majoring in management at Nelson Marlborough Institute of
Technology, I am require to complete a under‐graduate primary research paper where I investigate a
management issue, and offer new insights or solutions. I would like to invite you to take part in my
research examining whether women in New Zealand are aware of the barriers they must overcome to
reach leadership positions.
I am inviting you as you hold or have held a position of leadership as either an owner‐operator with
employees, or middle to high leadership position in a larger organisation, with experience in overcoming
barriers.
Your participation is voluntary, the data gathered will be used for the completion of my Management
degree research paper only, after this event all data will be destroyed.
My research is brief is a comparison of widely accepted and supported barriers identified in literature against data
gathered from women currently in leadership position in New Zealand. You participation would involve:
One 30 minute in‐depth interview recorded by a digital Dictaphone, discussing your personal
experiences of barrier in your career. Topics would include confidence, sense of belonging, jugging
home and career responsibilities, Gender Bias, role models, Career Breaks, and informal work
socialising.
If necessary an email or phone call to confirm a fact.
63
Hannah McIntosh ID 12869790 MGT736
All information collected during my research will remain confidential, and precautions will be taken to protect the
data using a password protected file for all your shared information. Real names will not be used in the study, and
any information that may identify you will either be omitted from the report or be approved by you.
You may withdraw from the interview at any time, but you cannot withdraw your data, you have the power to end
the interview if you feel uncomfortable or upset. While the research is underway only myself and my supervisor
(Sam Young) will have access to your information, and only relevant parts of the interview will be transcribed You
are welcome to have a digital copy of this interview, along with any addition notes that may be written.
Once preliminary analysis of the data has taken place, I may wish to contact you via email to gain confirmation on a
topic, before the end of the semester. If you have provided your email address on the consent form and signed it,
you are giving me permission to contact you directly. If at any time you decide you no longer wish to participant,
please contact me, and I will remove you details from my contact list.
Once completed you are welcome to a copy of my report in PDF form, please don’t hesitate to contact me if you
have any questions about the research, mine and my supervisor’s contact details are below.
Thank you for considering my research request
Yours sincerely
Hannah Elizabeth McIntosh (Hannah‐Mcintosh@live.nmit.ac.nz)
Ph 03 545 2579 or 022 075 6113
Supervisor: Sam Young (
sam.young@nmit.ac.nz)
Ph 03 546 9175 ext 367 or 027 244 7154

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Hannah McIntosh ID 12869790 MGT736
3.2. Appendix Two: Consent Form
APPLIED BUSINESS SCHOOL
15 August 2014
MGT736 ADVANCED APPLIED MANAGEMENT RESEARCH:
CONSENT FORM
I consent to participate in Hannah McIntosh’s research as part of a Bachelor of Commerce in management
at Nelson Marlborough Institute of Technology, examining whether women in New Zealand are aware of
the barriers they must overcome to reach leadership positions.
I have read the Participant Information Sheet, have understood the nature of the research and why I have
been selected. I have had the opportunity to ask questions and to have them answered to my satisfaction.
My participation is entirely voluntary. I understand that the data gathered will be used for the completion
of Hannah’s under‐graduate research only. I understand that her research involves.
One 30 minute in‐depth interview recorded by a digital Dictaphone, discussing your personal
experiences of barrier in your career. Topics would include confidence, sense of belonging, jugging
home and career responsibilities, Gender Bias, role models, Career Breaks, and informal work
socialising.
If necessary an email or phone call to confirm a fact.
I understand that all information collected during my research will remain confidential, and precautions will be taken
to protect the data using a password protected file for all your shared information. I understand real names will not
be used in the study, and any information that may identify me will either be omitted from the report or be
approved by me.

65
Hannah McIntosh ID 12869790 MGT736
I understand I may withdraw from the interview at any time, but I cannot withdraw your data, and that I have the
power to end the interview if I feel uncomfortable or upset. I understand while the research is underway only
Hannah and her supervisor (Sam Young) will have access to my information, and only relevant parts of the interview
will be transcribed I understand that I am welcome to have a digital copy of this interview, along with any addition
notes that may be written.
I understand that once preliminary analysis of the data has taken place, Hannah may wish to contact me via email to
gain confirmation on a topic, before the end of the semester. I have provided my email address below, and given
Hannah permission to contact me directly.
I understand that if at any time I decide I no longer wish to participant, I will contact Hannah, and she will remove my
details from her contact list.
I understand that once completed I am welcome to a copy of the report in PDF form, and that I can contact Hannah
or her supervisor at any time.
I agree to take part in this research.
I understand that I am free to withdraw participation at any time up until the end of
Semester, 2014.
I understand I cannot withdraw any data, should I agree to participate.
I agree / do not agree to be audio recorded.
I wish / do not wish to receive the final report.
I understand that data will be kept for the duration of the research, after which it will be
destroyed.
NAME: DATE:
SIGNATURE: EMAIL:

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Hannah McIntosh ID 12869790 MGT736
3.3. Appendix Three: Interview Questions
Demographic Questions
Age:
Current or Highest leadership Position:
Time in position:
Industry:
Research questions
My research so far has identified seven barriers that women are challenged by when pursuing leadership; these are
both internal to the woman, and external to society and the organisation. I will explain the barrier and then ask of
your experiences with it.
1. Low Confidence for women pursuing leadership has been described as an inability to display confidence and
higher risk aversion behaviour.
What is your opinion on this?
Could you describe a time that you have experience or observed this?
2. Imposter Syndrome is an inability to internalise success, meaning high achieving women feel as though they
do not belong in a high position, they believe their success is due to luck or a mistake by another. Can you
describe a time that you have felt this way, or observed it in other women?
3. Women are commonly responsible for the large majority of home tasks (E.g. cooking and cleaning), while
still working equal or more hours than their partners, this has be labelled as the Double Burden Syndrome.
Do you believe this is true from your experience? (Seeking explanation)
If yes ‐ What strategies did you use to create a better balance of work and home tasks?
If no – Do you believe that less home tasks has given you an advantage over others when pursuing promotion?
Example?
(Second questions may be answered with the first answers, but this is to ensure clarification)
4. Gender Bias is the glass ceiling; it is assumptions and beliefs shaped by our society about what women
should be and their capabilities. This includes a belief that women are to be caring, gentle, and selfless
making them incompatible with our accepted view of leadership. This has ment that women pursing
leadership may be seen as aggressive or holding masculine personality traits.
How would you describe your home personality in comparison to a business environment personality?
Have you felt the need to act differently with men when conducting business?

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Hannah McIntosh ID 12869790 MGT736
5. A lack of female role models has been identified as an issue for women seeking careers in senior
management, this has been partly attributed to the fact that women are don’t naturally seek mentors like
men, and that the low number of women in senior roles creates an impression that these roles are
undesirable.
Can you tell me about your role models or mentors that have directly impacted your career?
On what occasions did you socialise with them?
6. Careers breaks are more common for women than men as there is an expectation for them to be the
caregiver of children or elderly, or women choose to further education meaning they must leave the work
force for a period of time.
Have you left the workforce for an extended period of time? Can I ask what your reasons were?
If yes – Once your were aware that you would be leaving the workforce for an extended period of time did
you feel as though you couldn’t pursue opportunities such as promotions, or other role responsibilities?
If no – Did you use a flexible working hours arrangement to manage caregiver, education, or other
obligations? What?
7. The old boys network is the idea that men who climb the corporate ladder together promote each other
because of their familiar similarities, and the informal socialising (E.g. Golf or mountain biking) they do
together builds strong relationships that women struggle to overcome when applying for senior roles. What
socialising have you done with men to enhance your career opportunities throughout your working life?
8. Considering what we have discussed is there anything you would like to add that you believe is significant
from your experiences?
The interview style will be semi‐structured with a probing approach, so once an answer is offered the interviewer
will ask why did this happen? / Why did you feel this way? Or another suitable question to dig deeper for emotions
and perceptions. Once answered the mirroring technique will be used to paraphrase the answer back to ensure
accuracy, or any other points they may have missed.

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Hannah McIntosh ID 12869790 MGT736
3.4. Appendix Four: Ethical Considerations
The researcher will strive to up hold high ethical standards throughout the research adhering to NMIT code of ethical
conduct for research
, and gaining approval from the Research and Ethics Committee before any primary research will
be commenced.
Primary research will be built from secondary sources, with all contributors acknowledged in the bibliography, and
where appropriate permission will be sought for the use of intellectual property of another’s research. All data
collected will be presented in full and fair manner to accurately reflect the results of both secondary and primary
research.
It is recognised that sensitive personal information will be collected during the primary research phase; this will
include full names, ages, email addresses, and work history of female participants. This data will be treated as highly
confidential and shall be stored in a password protected file, accessible only on a hard drive kept at the researchers
personal residents, and a password protected file on a USB. Data shall be collected through interviews recorded by a
digital Dictaphone with additional notes written as needed, notes will be recorded on a tablet and saved in a
protected file until it can be transferred to the secure hard drive. At the completion of the research project all data
collected shall be destroyed, to protect the participants from any information use that was not agreed upon. The
identities of the participants will be treated as confidential, so each will be allocated an alias to be used during the
findings and discussion phase of the report. If the circumstances arise that the information to be included in the
report clearly identifies the individual participant, the researcher will seek direct approval for the specific quote, if it
is not approved the information will be omitted from the report.
The nature of the interviews may also cause psychological stress on the participants as they will be questioned about
barriers and challenges they have personally faced in their careers. To minimise this, the researcher will be neutral
when questioning and probing for deeper motivations and perceptions, if the participant is becoming upset to
interviewer will offer a break, and the participant has the power to end the interview at any point. After each
interview the researcher will provide her personal phone numbers and email to allow the participant to express any
issues or questions they have after the interview
Potential participants will be invited to take part through a letter (Participant information sheet) explaining in plain
english the purpose of the research, and the details of what a participant will do if taking part, along with their rights
and the measures the researcher will take to protect their rights. Interviews will be done in person or through Skype,
so the time donated by the participant and travel cost to reach the agreed venue is to be absorbed by them, but
where possible the researcher will come to the participant. The Participant information sheet and an informed
consent form will either be email or personally give to the potential participant at least two days before an interview
to allow for time to consider their participation. Included in the letter will be the researcher’s personal phone
numbers and email to allow access to answer any questions participants may have before or after the interview.
Participants will be offered a digital version of the audio recording and notes of the interview, and a pdf version of
the final report if they wish to see how their data impacted the study, upon receiving these they will advised what
their individual alias is in the report.
Interviews will be held either on Skype, a public place such as a café, or the work place of the participant, no private
homes will be used to maintain a professional nature, except in the situation of Skype interviews that may be more
convenient. Prior to commencing the interview the participant will be required to sign the informed consent form
approving the use of their information for the research, and for the protection of the researcher. If the interview is
taking place on Skype the participant will be asked to sign, scan and email the form, or post the form so long as the
interviewer has seen and taken a screen shot of the signed form. Once signed the participant cannot withdraw their
data from the research, with the exception of simply not answering questions.

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Hannah McIntosh ID 12869790 MGT736
3.5. Appendix Five: Nine Organisational Dimensions
(Desvaux, et al 2007, p.13)
3.6. Appendix Six: Leaky Pipeline Statistical Graphic
(Devillard, Sancier, Werner, Maller, & Kossoff, 2013, p.9)
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Hannah McIntosh ID 12869790 MGT736
Table 1 Modern Apprenticeship Statistics as at December 2011
Industry Female Industry Male
Hairdressing & Beauty
Services
435 House Construction 1,636
Shearing Services 97 Automotive Electrical
Services
632
Dairy Cattle Farming 91 Agricultural &
Construction
Machinery
524
Cafes & Restaurants 74 Plumbing Services 490
Flower retailing 32 Other Structural Metal
Product
397
Nursery Production
(Under Cover)
27 Prefabricated Metal
Building Manufacturing
391
Bakery Product
Manufacturing
24 Dairy Cattle Farming 292
Zoological & Botanic
Gardens Operation
20 Defence 219
Hardware & Building
Supplies Retailing
20 Shearing Services 216
Accommodation 18 Boatbuilding & Repair
Services
195
Total 838 Total 4,992
(Human Rights Commission, 2012)
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Hannah McIntosh ID 12869790 MGT736
Table 2 Women’s Representation in Legal Partnerships

Firms Women 2012 Total Men &
Women
Partners 2012
percent
Women 2012
percent point
change from
2010
Women’s status
in 2010
(women/ total
no. of partners)
Martelli
McKegg Wells
& Cormack
5 11 45.45 percent 8.64 percent 4/11
Anderson
Lloyd
10 26 38.46 percent -5.33 percent 13/30
Wynn
Williams & Co
5 17 29.41 percent -4.33 percent 4/12
Brookfields 4 14 28.57 percent -6.29 percent 6/17
Minter Ellison
Rudd Watts
12 45 26.67 percent 5.05 percent 9/41
Glaister Ennor 3 12 25.00 percent 8.33 percent 2/12
Meredith
Connell
7 29 24.14 percent 0.00 percent 6/25
Cavell Leitch
Pringle &
Boyle
4 17 23.53 percent 11.50 percent 2/16
AWS Legal 3 13 23.08 percent -5.57 percent 4/14
Duncan
Cotterill
8 37 21.62 percent 9.50 percent 4/32
Kensington
Swan
6 31 19.35 percent -2.21 percent 7/33
Russell
McVeagh
8 42 19.05 percent 1.50 percent 7/40
Simpson
Grierson
9 48 18.75 percent -0.57 percent 9/46
Gallaway
Cook Allan
2 11 18.18 percent 1.33 percent 2/12
DLA Phillips
Fox
4 23 17.39 percent -2.05 percent 4/21
Buddle
Findlay
7 41 17.07 percent 0.33 percent 7/42
Hesketh
Henry
2 12 16.67 percent 2.71 percent 2/14
Tompkins
Wake
2 13 15.38 percent -3.18 percent 2/11
Chapman
Tripp
8 54 14.81 percent 0.19 percent 8/54
A J Park 2 15 13.33 percent 1.57 percent 2/17
Morrison Kent 2 15 13.33 percent 6.75 percent 1/16
Cooney Lees
& Morgan
1 10 10.00 percent 0.91 percent 1/11
Gibson Sheat
Lawyers
1 11 9.09 percent 0.67 percent 1/12

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Hannah McIntosh ID 12869790 MGT736

Bell Gully 4 45 8.89 percent -3.77 percent 6/47
Anthony
Harper
1 15 6.67 percent 0.75 percent 1/16
Lane Neave 1 16 6.25 percent -5.11 percent 2/18
McVeagh
Fleming
0 14 0.00 percent -5.88 percent 1/17
Total 121 637 19 percent 0.76 percent 118/647

(Human Rights Commission, 2012)
73
Hannah McIntosh ID 12869790 MGT736
Table 3 Women in Governance in Disabled People’s Organisations
DPOs in the
Convention
Coalition
Governance Body Women Total Men and
Women
percent
Balance Trustees 2 4 50 percent
Deafblind Board 4 8 50 percent
Association of
Blind Citizens
Board 4 9 44.44 percent
Deaf Aotearoa Executive Board
Officers
3 7 42.86 percent
Disabled Persons
Assembly
National
Executive
Committee
5 12 41.67 percent
People First National
Committee
2 6 33.33 percent
Ngäti Käpo o
Aotearoa
Te Tumuaki 1 4 25 percent
Ngä Hau e Whä No data available
– – –
Total 21 50 42 percent
(Human Rights Commission, 2012)
74
Hannah McIntosh ID 12869790 MGT736
Table 4 Chief Executives Genders as at September 2012
Department Gender CE 2012 Gender CE 2010
Building & Housing N/A F
CERA M N/A
Conservation M M
Corrections M M
Crown Law Office M M
Culture & Heritage M M
Customs F M
Economic Development N/A M
Education F F
Education Review Office M M
Environment M M
Foreign Affairs & Trade M M
Govt Communications Security
Bureau
M M
Health M M
Inland Revenue F M
Internal Affairs M M
Justice M M
Labour N/A M
Land Information New Zealand M M
Mäori Development Te Puni
Kökiri
F (announced) M
Ministry of Business,
Innovation and Employment
M N/A
Ministry of Defence F (announced) M
Pacific Island Affairs F (announced) M
Primary Industries M N/A
Prime Minister & Cabinet M M
Science & Innovation N/A F
Serious Fraud Office M M
Social Development M M
State Services Commission M M
Statistics New Zealand M M
Transport M M
Treasury M M
Women’s Affairs F (announced) F
Total 24.1 percent 17.6 percent
(Human Rights Commission, 2012)
75
Hannah McIntosh ID 12869790 MGT736
Table 5 Female FTSE Index 2012 ‐ 2014
(Vinnicombe, Doldor, & Turner, 2014, p.10)

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